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Mécanismes de la dysfonction ventriculaire droite dans l'hypertension pulmonaire : focus sur l’ischémie myocardique et les troubles du métabolisme mitochondrial.

Abstract : Right ventricular failure is associated with an increased mortality in several clinical features, especially in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Underlying mechanisms of right ventricular dysfunction and failure in chronic pressure overload are complex and still subject to debate. The balance between the supply and the increased need in oxygen is crucial to maintain an adapted right ventricular function. However, an impairment of the myocardial microvascularisation could lead to myocardial ischemia and could participate to the transition between adapted and non-adapted right ventricular hypertrophy. As mitochondrion are involved in the entire oxygen-dependent energy production in cardiomyocytes, their integrity is also essential for a good right ventricular function. It is suggested that mitochondrial metabolism is impaired in right ventricular failure. However, only few data exist at the early stage of right ventricular dysfunction. To better understand the importance of such mechanisms, we used a model of chronic pulmonary hypertension in piglets.The first aim of this thesis was to study the association between microvascularisation impairment and right ventricular adaptation to chronic pressure overload. We compared two different piglet models of pulmonary hypertension. The first model was a systemic-to-pulmonary shunt (SHUNT) between the aortic arch and the pulmonary trunk. The second model reproduced thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). In this work, we showed that early right ventricular dysfunction was associated with (1) a mismatch between microvascularisation and right ventricular hypertrophy as showed by a decreased capillary density, (2) an importance of the capillary density to right ventricular stroke work ratio and (3) an increased of myocardial fibrosis.In the second part of this thesis, we studied and compared the capillary density and myocardial fibrosis in right ventricles of 14 Eisenmenger Syndrome patients and 14 patients with chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. All 28 patients had symptomatic right ventricular failure and underwent heart-lung transplantation in our institution. Capillary density was not different between the two groups and was almost 1.5-fold lower than in normal right ventricle, confirming the impairment of microvascularisation in these patients.In the third part of this work, we studied the mitochondrial respiratory capacities in the setting of right ventricular remodeling under chronic pressure overload. Thus, we showed that, in our swine CTEPH model, the mitochondrial respiratory capacities were globally and early impaired. The mitochondrial mass assessed in transmission electronic microscopy was not decreased. We didn’t observe any modification of substrate use over time.Taking together, these results showed that microvascular impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction had an important role in the early right ventricular dysfunction. Molecular pathways involved in both mechanisms are currently studied to find new targeted therapeutics.
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 22, 2018 - 4:55:09 PM
Last modification on : Friday, August 28, 2020 - 3:11:19 AM
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Pierre-Emmanuel Noly. Mécanismes de la dysfonction ventriculaire droite dans l'hypertension pulmonaire : focus sur l’ischémie myocardique et les troubles du métabolisme mitochondrial.. Cardiologie et système cardiovasculaire. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS535⟩. ⟨tel-01715457⟩



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