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Développement et validation de tests de détection rapide de la résistance aux antibiotiques

Abstract : Beta-lactams are antibiotics preferentially used against gram-negative bacilli infections. The worldwide spread of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) or carbapenemase-producing organisms is a global concern and also an economic threat.Within those organisms, Enterobacteriaceae have a major role as causes of nosocomial infections (and, for E. coli, also of community-acquired infections). The emergence and dissemination of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), mainly expressing beta-lactamases from the CTX-M family, and in a worrier aspect of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), mainly NDM, KPC, IMP, VIM and OXA-48 like enzymes, are undoubtedly a matter of great public health concern.CTX-Ms hydrolyze broad-spectrum cephalosporins and are the most encountered BLSE in Enterobacteriaceae, and CTX-Ms producers have been reported as the most prevalent ESBL producers in community-onset urinary tract infections (UTIs). Moreover, CTX-M-producing E.coli are a major cause of bloodstream infections that are often secondary to UTIs. These severe infections are treated with carbapenems, considered as last resort antibiotics. Unfortunately, their increasing use put a selective pressure on Enterobacteriaceae, leading to more and more strains showing decreased susceptibility to carbapenems and potentially leading to therapeutic failure.Considering the limited treatment options for ESBL-E and that CPE are often resistant to several if not all classes of antibiotics, and for which very few (or no) antibiotic options remain available, their rapid detection and identification are essential. Reliable tests are needed to help physicians, to quickly provide appropriate infection control measures, to adapt rapidly antibiotic treatment and optimize care strategies and outcomes.While detecting ESBL-Es or EPCs, it is also crucial to identify the implicated beta-lactamase for accurate therapy implementation. To do so, the antibody-specificity based methods are undoubtedly appropriate. To respond to the current needs, antimicrobial drug resistance detection methods must be cheap (reduced costs of consumables and equipment) and easy to use (reduced technical complexity) for the end user, and LFIAs respond to this requirements. Our objective was to develop such tests, and this led us to produce monoclonal antibodies against CTX-Ms, NDM, KPC, IMP, VIM and OXA-48 carbapenemase families and to develop and validate the corresponding LFIAs. Our tests are robust assays, easily transferable in a commercialized version, stable for more than 24 months without refrigeration, user-friendly (no requirement of trained staff), high performance (sensitive and specific), low cost, from 7€ (monotest) to less than 15€ (multiplex). Moreover, the detection results are obtained in short delay without the need for highly technical equipment for the readout.Here, we validated a LFIA for the detection of CTX-Ms (from group 1) and to a wider extent evaluated the direct detection of CTX-Ms from groups 1, 2, 8 and 9 in clinical samples such as blood culture and urine. Mono-tests to detect NDMs and OXA-48-like, and a multiplex for the simultaneous detection of the five main carbapenemases were also validated. These validations were conducted using 180 well characterized isolates in terms of their -lactamase content from the French National Reference Centre for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.
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Hervé Boutal. Développement et validation de tests de détection rapide de la résistance aux antibiotiques. Immunologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS499⟩. ⟨tel-01715103⟩

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