Fiabilisation de la quantification des éléments traces cationiques et anioniques par la technique d'échantillonnage DGT en milieu aquatique naturel

Abstract : The passive sampling DGT technique (Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films) has a lot of benefits (time-weighted average concentrations, low limits of quantification) and would therefore be a useful tool for monitoring studies to quantify trace elements in natural water. However, there are still some limitations and grey areas that put the brakes on the development of the method for regulatory applications. The aim of this work is to identify potential biases and contribute to increase the method reliability. This study shows that a minimized uncertainty on results can be obtained only if elution factors are experimentally determined; however, standard values of 0.8 for Cr(III) and 0.85 for Al(III), Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) are suggested to reduce manipulations while keeping reasonable uncertainty (<10%). Studying the influence of fouling developed on DGT devices showed that the sorption of cations Cd(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) had, respectively, a slight, moderate and strong impact on their accumulation in DGT samplers and therefore on their quantification. Samplers should then be deployed for less than one week. In contrast, fouling had a negligible impact on oxyanions As(V), Cr(VI), Sb(V) and Se(VI). Finally, a method was developed to simultaneously quantify both Cr oxidation states naturally occurring in natural waters, which are Cr(III), essential to life, and Cr(VI), toxic. Both forms are accumulated in a single DGT sampler before being selectively separated during an elution step. This method is robust for wide ranges of ionic strengths and sulfate concentrations but for a narrower range of pH (4 to 6).
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Delphine Devillers. Fiabilisation de la quantification des éléments traces cationiques et anioniques par la technique d'échantillonnage DGT en milieu aquatique naturel. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Limoges, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIMO0058⟩. ⟨tel-01714555⟩

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