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Rôles de l'adiponectine à l'interface foeto-maternelle humaine au cours du premier trimestre de grossesse

Abstract : Embryo implantation requires a spatiotemporal synchronization between a functional placenta and a receptive endometrium. Endometrium receptivity based on the differentiation of stromal cells into decidual cells, under the influence of ovarian hormones (estrogens and progesterone). The placenta is a transient organ composed of two cell types. Villous trophoblast ensures fetal-maternal exchanges and the endocrine functions. Extravillous trophoblast acquire an invasive phenotype resulting in the placenta anchoring in the endometrium. Then, a complexe paracrine dialog between placental cells and endometrial cells is established during the first stages of the embryo implantation.Adiponectin is an adipokine predominantly produced by the adipose tissue. This cytokine has an important role in the control of energy metabolism and displays an insulin-sensitizing action. In some cell types, adiponectin limits proliferation, but promotes invasion and differentiation. Adiponectin and its receptors ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, are expressed at the fetal-maternal interface. Thus, endometrium and placenta are adiponectin targets.In this work, we aimed to determine adiponectin direct effects at the human fetal maternal interface during the first trimester of pregnancy.In a first part, we observed that adiponectin limits differentiation and invasion in endometrial stromal cells.In a second part, we showed that adiponectin promotes glycogen production by decidual cells. Conversely, adiponectin seems to limit glycogen uptake by placental cells. These results demonstrate that adiponectin could regulate histiotrophic nutrition to the fetus.In a last part, we demonstrated that adiponectin down-regulates the expression of nutrient transporters and promotes apoptosis in villous trophoblast. These last results could help to better understand the adiponectin roles in some placental pathologies, as intrauterine growth restriction, characterized by a decreased fetal weight and a enhanced trophoblastic apoptosis. Altogether, these results demonstrate that adiponectin is a key regulator of the fetal-maternal dialog by controlling the differentiation of a functional endometrium and by regulating transplacental nutrient exchanges.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01714540
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 21, 2018 - 3:58:07 PM
Last modification on : Friday, October 23, 2020 - 4:37:52 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01714540, version 1

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Fabien Duval. Rôles de l'adiponectine à l'interface foeto-maternelle humaine au cours du premier trimestre de grossesse. Embryologie et organogenèse. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLV070⟩. ⟨tel-01714540⟩

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