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Theses

A la recherche d’anticorps humains et de nouveaux biomarqueurs pour le ciblage de la plaque d’athérome

Abstract : This thesis is based on the selection of human antibodies and identification of newbiomarkers to develop a diagnosis and a therapy of atherosclerosis. The part one treats, first,the selection of human antibodies in a pathophysiological context in an animal model ofatherosclerosis. To access not only to a large panel of targets but also proteins in their nativeconformation and influenced by their microenvironment, an in vivo selection was performed.In a second time, an innovative high throughput flow cytometry screening was implemented.Contrary to the use of ELISA screening which needs to have an identified target, the flowcytometry doesn’t have this limitation and uses a lower quantity of proteins than ELISAassays. By this screening, two thousand clones were selected. Characterization and specificitytests of these antibodies have yielded to the discovery of galectin 3 has a new biomarker. Thisprotein is implicated in macrophage activation, binding of oxLDL by macrophages to formfoam cells. The second part is about a second screening approach of the antibodies issuingfrom the in vivo selection by using Next Generation Sequencing methods (PacificBiosciences). The results of this primary study allowed for highlighingt two points: (1) thefeasibility to obtain long reads >1000bp identified as scFv after analysis by IMGT/HighVQUEST(international database of immunglobulins) and (2) the feasibility to identify hits ofclones preferentially enriched during the in vivo selection. In conclusion and perspectives,these two complementary methods give the opportunity to obtain human antibodies for (1) thecoupling to nanoparticles for diagnosis by MRI of atheroma plaque and (2) serve as ligandsfor in situ delivery of drugs.
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Audrey Hemadou. A la recherche d’anticorps humains et de nouveaux biomarqueurs pour le ciblage de la plaque d’athérome. Immunologie. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0806⟩. ⟨tel-01714482⟩

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