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Quantification de la recharge naturelle et artificielle d'un système aquifère soumis à des contraintes climatiques et anthropiques en zone semi-aride (bassin de Sbiba et Foussana) Tunisie centrale

Abstract : The study area lies in the northern part of central Tunisia and extends over about 650 km2. It is located betweenthe rainy Tellian region in the North and the Saharan region in the South. The Foussana Basin is a typical closedinland basin surrounded by high mountains where the precipitation varies over space and time as a result oftopography and seasonality.The main outcrop that marks the watershed of Foussana basin is the quaternary alluvium, which is surrounded byCretaceous reef of deposits covering folds Mountains bounding. The Foussana basin is composed of two aquifers,the PlioQuaternary and the Miocene aquifers. The PlioQuaternary aquifer consists of clayey sand, coarse sand andsandstone deposits. This aquifer is composed of two permeable levels PlioQuaternary Aquifer (PQ1) and PlioceneAquifer (PQ2), which are separated by interbedded sandy marl. The Miocene aquifer consists of sandstone andcoarse sands. This aquifer constitutes an important water source in the study area because of its relativelysignificant thickness and its water quality. It‘s separated to the PlioQuaternary aquifer by a clay layer. The differentaquifers communicate through faults.The groundwater flows occurs from the borders to the center of the basin,i.e. from the surrounding hills to the depression area. The main source of aquifer recharge is infiltration of rainfalland dam water.Groundwater samples with low TDS values, which typically correspond to outcrops of the Miocene aquifer andsome samples of the first PlioQuaternary aquifer PQ1, are typically of SO4-Ca-HCO3-Na water type. In contrast,groundwater samples with high TDS values, most of which were collected in the PlioQuaternary aquifer (PQ1 andPQ2) and groundwater of the Confined Miocene, are typically of SO4-Ca-Na-Mg water type. The main sources ofthe water mineralization in the Foussana basin are the water-rock interaction processes i.e. dissolution ofevaporates and cation-exchange process.The isotopic signatures permit to classify the studied groundwaters into different groups. The PlioQuaternaryaquifer groundwater was classified into two groups. These are the non-evaporated groundwater, which ischaracterized by depleted δ18O and δ2H contents highlighting the importance of modern recharge at higher altitude,and the mixing process with the deep aquifer of the Miocene. The evaporated groundwater that exhibits enrichedstable isotope contents, these enriched values could be related to the evaporation process, which occurs possiblyin the upper part of the unsaturated zone of the PlioQuaternary aquifer (depression area).The Miocene aquifersgroundwaters are classified into two groups. The first group is characterized by relatively depleted isotope contentscorresponding to outcropping Miocene in the border indicating the altitude effect. The second group isdistinguished by relatively depleted contents of stable isotopes corresponding to the confined Miocene reflectinga palaeoclimatic origin. Tritium data permit to identify recent groundwaters originating from a mixture ofcontemporaneous and post-nuclear recharge; and ancient groundwaters deriving from pre-nuclear recharge.Radiocarbon activities decrease from 80 pmc in the recharge area to less than 3 pmc in the confined aquiferproviding ages from present day to 30 000 years BP.In conclusion, a conceptual model has been produced to describe the functioning of the aquifers. The modelling isused as a tool to synthesise the data and the functioning hypothesis. It gives a visualization mean and can put inevidence the aspects, which should be deepened in next works.
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Zohra Hachaichi. Quantification de la recharge naturelle et artificielle d'un système aquifère soumis à des contraintes climatiques et anthropiques en zone semi-aride (bassin de Sbiba et Foussana) Tunisie centrale. Hydrologie. Université d'Avignon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017AVIG0053⟩. ⟨tel-01713224⟩

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