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Analyse critique et enjeux théoriques du Théâtre des Orgies et des Mystères d’Hermann Nitsch : de 1957 à nos jours

Abstract : Hermann Nitsch's Theatre of Orgies and Mysteries (Orgien Mysterien Theater) grew out of the painful context of post-Fascist Austria. Although Austria had welcomed annexation with Germany in 1938 and the Austrians had been eager collaborators with the Nazis from the outset, as soon as the war was over, they portrayed themselves as victims, denying responsibility for or active participation in Nazi crimes, preferring to blame everything on their German neighbours.In this loathsome atmosphere, in which the majority of the intellectuals of the time remained silent, Hermann Nitsch set up his Theater, using a highly radical, visual language.Contrary to what one might suppose, however, it was not political art.And in fact, after the initial visual shock, the Theater was, above all, philosophical and anthropological. Nitsch maintained that modern man, stripped of mythology, was no longer in harmony with his essence. Postmodern societies, which he deemed alienating, were responsible for a semantic breach between the material and the spiritual. The experience of the Theater, through ritual and its emphasis on anthropological principles of invariance, was a way for the individual to rid himself of societal determinism in order to gain access to continuous knowledge (Bataille). Thus, the Theatre of Orgies andMysteries is a multi-referential, transhistoric work situated on the cusp of micro- and macro-history. Nitsch has stated that "the creative process and the Theater must contribute towards forming a unity with the whole" so as to "erase the difference between immanence and transcendence". All of the activities proposed by Nitsch consist in rituals, sometimes of life and sometimes of death, but all with the aim of erasing the immanence/transcendence dichotomy. Hermann Nitsch's Theater adapts inborn symbolic language (in the Freudian sense) and old traditions in an attempt to demonstrate to the modernindividual that the universe that surrounds them, despite its diversity, is a coherent whole, a surviving continuity in which they participate.a
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Bénédicte Maselli. Analyse critique et enjeux théoriques du Théâtre des Orgies et des Mystères d’Hermann Nitsch : de 1957 à nos jours. Art et histoire de l'art. Université Rennes 2, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018REN20004⟩. ⟨tel-01711019⟩

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