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Ontologies du sujet. Proust, Joyce et Kafka narrateurs modernistes

Abstract : This research project focuses on some aspects in the development of modernist narratives before and immediately after World War I, through the analysis of literary projects and works by Marcel Proust, James Joyce and Franz Kafka. The comparison between these three authors is based on topics such as the function of literature in modern context and its relationship to cultural past ; the innovation regarding subjectivity in fiction, from the self-representation of the writer to the creation of characters ; the various aspects of crisis in the narrative configuration of experience, as well as the broadening of its signification.Such a framework required a wide scope in theoretical and methodological approaches, going from the history of literary genres to sociology, from philosophical views to the latest propositions in the field of Modernist Studies. Each one of the three thematic poles of the research is thus treated according to its specificity, but also as part of a common paradigm, which may be useful to a better understanding of a cultural phenomenon such us modernist narratives, which has not been completely historicized yet.The fundamental hypothesis of the entire research is thereby related to a common principle in literary criticism : the idea that the 20th century is marked by general discontinuity with the aesthetics belonging to the previous century. We question some of the theoretical foundations to this principle, especially regarding the perception of the revolt against the aesthetics of Symbolism and Naturalism, and proceed by trying to understand how categories such as that of aesthetic autonomy and realism are transformed and revitalized by the authors, becoming the inherited criteria of truth allowing the modernist work of narration to turn itself into a subjective description of the general sense of being, or as what we call it here, an «ontology of the subject».
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Raffaello Rossi. Ontologies du sujet. Proust, Joyce et Kafka narrateurs modernistes. Littératures. Université Paris-Est, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PESC0034⟩. ⟨tel-01710764⟩

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