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Développement, validation clinique et valorisation d'une nouvelle technologie pour la rééducation de la dextérité manuelle

Abstract : Manual dexterity is essential for our physical interaction with the world. The high degree of dexterity in humans requires sophisticated control of several key components such as the control of force, of independence, timing and sequencing of finger movements. Manual dexterity is affected in various pathologies, impacting activities of daily living and leading to loss of independence. The main purpose of this thesis is to improve rehabilitation of dexterity in these patients by a better behavioral quantification and a clearer understanding of manual dexterity and its components of control. We developed the Finger Force Manipulandum (FFM), a new tool allowing for the quantification of the main components of the dexterity in healthy subjects and in patients. To validate this device, we tested the feasibility of its use with stroke patients suffering from moderate-to-severe deficits of dexterity. In these patients, the FFM allowed for quantification of four components of dexterity and for identification of deficits in each of them (example: patients (N=10) made three times more error than controls (N=10) in force control; P=0.0002). These measures (components) are more sensitive than clinical tests, such as the ARAT: patients reaching the maximum ARAT score still showed deficits of dexterity with the FFM. Based on the four FFM scores, individual profiles of affected dexterity were calculated, highlighting the individual deficit of each patient. This allowed for quantitative longitudinal follow up during recovery. In a disease affecting dexterity mildly, such as schizophrenia, the FFM scores of stabilized patients (N = 35) indicated a significantly lower performance compared to control subjects (N = 20) in each of the four dexterity components. Some of the FFM measures correlated with clinical scales, such as the PANSS (R=0.53, P=0.0019), and also with some neuropsychological scales. These FFM measures also provide indicators for the evolution of dexterity over time: certain components remained stable after cognitive remediation, while others improved. In conclusion, the FFM is a new tool, which allows for quantification of manual dexterity (by measuring various underlying components). It is suitable for patients with moderate-to-sever manual deficits and allows for identification of individual profiles of affected dexterity. It also detects minor manual deficits in schizophrenic patients, and may allow for identification of potential behavioral markers related to the neurodevelopmental background of schizophrenic patients (early detection) and to the evolution of the disease.
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 15, 2018 - 6:48:06 PM
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Maxime Térémetz. Développement, validation clinique et valorisation d'une nouvelle technologie pour la rééducation de la dextérité manuelle. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016USPCB065⟩. ⟨tel-01710332⟩

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