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Etude de l’anthocyanidine synthase de Vitis vinifera : substrats polyphénoliques et mécanismes réactionnels

Abstract : Recombinant anthocyanidin synthase from Vitis vinifera (VvANS) has been expressed in E. coli, and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The production and purification of the iron-loaded enzyme has been developed in order to avoid uncontrolled nonenzymatic oxidation reactions in the presence of Fe(II) salt. A stable VvANS-Fe(II) complex is formed in the presence of 2-oxoglutarate and ascorbate, and this complex is catalytically active at ambient PO2 in the absence of Fe(II) salt. The transformation of (+)-catechin by VvANS has been studied with and without ascorbate, by using either the VvANSFe( II) complex or the holoenzyme co-incubated with ferrous sulfate, to investigate the role of ascorbate. No enzyme activity has been observed in the absence of ascorbate, which means that it is an essential enzyme cofactor. A covalent adduct ascorbate-cyanidin is produced in vitro, but only in the absence of glutathione (GSH), another major nucleophilic and reducing agent. The two stereoisomers of leucocyanidin (3,4-cis et 3,4-trans flavan-diols) which were expected to behave as substrates of VvANS, are not commercial and were synthesized by reduction of dihydroquercetin by NaBH4, and characterized by proton NMR. The analysis of the two stereoisomers by means of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) shows that their fragmentation pathways are distinct and may be used to distinguish them during their production. The two stereoisomers are stable in frozen aqueous medium at -20°C. Twelve flavonoids of four distinct families (flavanones, dihydroflavonols, flavan-3-ols et flavan-3,4-diols) were tested as potential substrates of VvANS. All enzymatic products were purified by means of reverse-phase HPLC and characterized by MS/MS, with the following results: 1) Only dihydroflavonols of (2R,3R) configuration are accepted as substrates by VvANS, the activity decreasing with the number of hydroxyl groups of ring B. 2) Only flavan-3-ols or flavan-3,4-diols of (2R,3S) configuration having either a catechol or three vicinal phenolic OH on ring B are accepted as substrates. 3) Naringenin is not substrate of VvANS, most likely because a C3 hydroxyl group is missing. […] Glutathione GSH is a powerful nucleophilic and reducing agent as well as a free radical scavenger, which is abundant in grape berries. We therefore studied its effect on VvANS activity with all identified substrates. GSH has no effect on the transformation of dihydroflavonols and flavan-3,4-diols, but it considerably modifies the transformation pattern of (+)- catechin and (+)-gallocatechin. In the presence of (+)-catechin and GSH, we observe two major products, cyanidin and a cyanidin-glutathione thioether, with production yields which are much higher than in the absence of GSH. Moreover, the ascorbate-cyanidin covalent adduct and the (+)-catechin dimer that had been obtained in the absence of GSH have disappeared. Our data suggest that the cyanidin-glutathione adduct is a C4-thioether which is in equilibrium between the two keto-enolic tautomeric forms at C3, and decomposes into cyanidin and GSH. In the presence of (+)-gallocatechin, a similar delphinidin-glutathione thioether adduct is also observed. In order to test the possible specificity of GSH as a cofactor, three other mercaptans (thiomalate, cysteine and cysteamine) were tested, and no similar product was observed, which suggests that GSH is a specific ligand, and might be a coenzyme of VvANS. Our results suggest that anthocyanidins could be produced in vivo from a flavan-3-ol substrate (catechin or gallocatechin) via a glutathione thioether intermediate, whereas the natural 3,4-cis stereoisomer of leucocyanidin is not transformed into cyanidin by VvANS.
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Jiarong Zhang. Etude de l’anthocyanidine synthase de Vitis vinifera : substrats polyphénoliques et mécanismes réactionnels. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université de Bordeaux, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BORD0867⟩. ⟨tel-01710009⟩

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