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Interactions entre végétation des habitats semi-naturels, pratiques agricoles et contrôle biologique des ravageurs des cultures - Optimisation de l'approche bande fleurie

Abstract : The degradation of semi-natural habitats and land use intensifi cationhave resulted in a loss of ecosystem services. A better understandingof the mechanisms of crop herbivore regulation is neededto improve plant protection and to reduce insecticide treatments.Plant species of semi-natural habitats such as herbaceous fi eldmargins, provide shelter and food resources for crop insects. Thethesis aims to evaluate the role of the fi eld margin vegetation toimprove our knowledge on interaction with crop herbivores and naturalenemies and to optimise ecological engineering approaches.The studies are based on botanical and entomological surveys, onquestionnaire information (land use) and on landscape mapping.In one experiment we manipulated fi eld margin vegetation, to compareeffects of vegetation rich in fl oral resources with control treatments(spontaneous vegetaion, grass strips).We demonstrated theimportance of spontaneous vegetation, particularly the abundanceof fl owering entomophilous plants in regulating crop herbivores.Local factors such as land use intensity and fi eld margin vegetationhad a stronger infl uence on crop herbivores and natural enemiesthan landscape features. A new method of labelling soruce plantnectar with 13C sugar was tested to analyse nectar uptake andthe movements of parasitoids between fi eld margin and crop. Marginvegetation optimised for fl oral resource provisioning improvedregulation service. The results are discussed in terms of managementrecommendations for agri-envrionment schemes
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01709040
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 14, 2018 - 2:46:06 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01709040, version 1

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Anna Pollier. Interactions entre végétation des habitats semi-naturels, pratiques agricoles et contrôle biologique des ravageurs des cultures - Optimisation de l'approche bande fleurie. Amélioration des plantes. Agrocampus Ouest, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016NSARC127⟩. ⟨tel-01709040⟩

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