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Dysfonctions des lysosomes et neurodégénérescence : l'exemple de la paraplégie spastique de type SPG11

Abstract : Lysosomal dysfunctions are involved in a large number of neurodegenerative diseases highlightingthe crucial function of lysosomes in neuron survival and function. The mechanism of lysosomereformation from autolysosomes allow cells to maintain the ool of functional lysosomes.Disruptions of this rocess are involved in athologies affecting the central nervous system. Inparticular, spatacsin that lays a role in lysosome recycling is implicated in hereditary spasticparaplegia type SPG11, a severe disease characterized by motors and cognitive alterations. Thispathology is caused by loss of function mutations in SPG11, encoding spatacsin. The study ofSPG11 cellular models gives the opportunity to decipher the hysiopathological mechanismsunderlying lysosomal reformation disruptions.During my thesis, I showed that loss of spatacsin function induces lipid accumulation in lysosomesand articularly in autolysosomes both in fibroblasts and neurons from Spg11-/- mice. Gangliosidesand cholesterol are among lipids that accumulate in autolysosomes impairing lysosomal membranerecycling by disrupting the recruitment of keys roteins. Neurons with ganglioside accumulationsare more sensitive to glutamate induced neuronal death, suggesting that these accumulations areinvolved in neurodegeneration. These results could be of great importance since accumulations ofgangliosides in lysosomes arise in many diseases.I also showed that loss of spatacsin disrupts extracellular calcium import by the store-operatedcalcium entry (SOCE) leading to an increase in cytosolic calcium levels. Lysosomal calcium contentis also increased in Spg11-/- cells and calcium release from lysosome by TRPML1 is reduced.Inhibiting SOCE and stimulating lysosomal calcium release by TRPML1 reduced lipidsaccumulations in lysosomes and artially restored lysosome reformation.Our data suggest that absence of spatacsin is responsible for a disruption of calcium homeostasisthat contributes to lipid accumulation in autolysosomes, disturbing reformation of lysosomes fromautolysosomes. Inhibiting gangliosides synthesis could be used as a therapeutic strategy. However,understanding how loss of function of spatacsin alters these cellular athways will allow thedevelopment of targeted therapeutic approaches.
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Maxime Boutry. Dysfonctions des lysosomes et neurodégénérescence : l'exemple de la paraplégie spastique de type SPG11. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066295⟩. ⟨tel-01707839⟩

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