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Towards performance evaluation of energy efficient buildings

Abstract : In France, the building sector is the main energy consumer. Moreover single-family houses represent about 60% of annual dwelling construction. The construction of energy efficient buildings represents a big step into energy saving. However, even though various efforts are made within this field, there is still a lack of methodologies about how to evaluate the energy performance of these buildings. The performance evaluation of an energy efficient building should allow understanding factors that contribute to its energy performance and as well as identifying the causes of overconsumption, poor indoor conditions.This thesis seeks to contribute to this field, by proposing an approach towards evaluating the energy performance of a house. This is done by comparing the real performance and the expected performance, using monitoring and building performance simulation, from design to operational phases. The energy performance evaluation approach is carried out on different cases of studies, mainly on a single-family house, situated in a Mediterranean climate.First, in the design phase, we use building performance simulation models to study the dispersions in energy use related to occupant’s behavior. The goal is to analyze the influence of the occupancy scenario on the behavior of the building and to establish a range of values for energy demand, based on national statistics. This step study the building’s behavior based on different types of occupancy scenarios, appliances and lighting use and temperature set point.Then, the focus is on the global evaluation of the envelope’s performance. Within the present thesis an innovative in-situ dynamic test is developed to assess the real envelope’s performance. This test is adapted to occupied houses (as it only takes 2 days) while controlling the infiltration air flow. The comparison between theoretical results of steady state calculation and experimental results show a good precision of less than 10%.Finally, continuous monitoring of energy efficient houses is studied. First, a work is done to reduce the number of sensors required for monitoring, while minimizing the loss of information. Then, an instrumentation methodology is developed and applied to a single-family house. The follow-up of this house could be studied during the first six months of monitoring and allowed to explain the behavior of the building and its consumption with regard to its use and to make the link with the previsions made during the design phase.
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Submitted on : Monday, February 12, 2018 - 10:16:06 AM
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Ana Stefanoiu. Towards performance evaluation of energy efficient buildings. Construction durable. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAA007⟩. ⟨tel-01706622⟩

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