Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
Theses

Les contraintes de charge asymétriques chez l'homme moderne : étude microCT sur l'os trabéculaire

Abstract : The study of bone is of major interest in Anthropology. The skeleton is an image of motor activity. Indeed, every element of the skeleton has a function dictated by its shape and role and then by its morphology. This illustrates the most visible adaptation of the bone. This process is widely studied in the human lineage. This theory is an important path of research in Anthropology. These characters are inscribed in the shape of the bone. Each curve, or crest reflect the action of a muscle or a function dictated by a slow evolutionary process. This change is by changing external characteristics of the bone by its form or anatomy "visible" on the one hand and by the evolution of more internal character, subtle and directly related to the biomechanical properties of bone namely trabecular bone. Trabecular bone is a more brittle material, deformable than cortical bone. It is an indirect trace of the stresses applied to the bone. Thus locomotion, feeding or occupational activities can be analyzed into the bone endostructure. This is the theory developed by Wolff in 1870 in "The law of bone remodeling." He developed this idea of ??an active, evolving process by macroscopic observation of the spans of the proximal femur in humans. If the stress on a particular bone increases, it will remodel to become more rigid and withstand the load in that particular bone segment and for this particular force of constraint. We studied this theory on two models in the living human being. One concerned the upper limb and the second the lower limb to characterize asymmetrical forces on trabecular bone. Laterality or handedness is an example of asymmetrical activity. Its effects on bone are well known in the practice of intensive sports or very lateralized activities. However, little data exist on the usual activities and the handedness of the young man with no particular activity. We performed a microCT study with cuts 41 microns slices. Volumes of interest in radial carpal bones were performed on both sides on young human adults without particular medical history. Several clinical and anthropometric variables were also collected. We were able to highlight endostructural patterns explaining the interindividual variability in comparison with anthropometric parameters and crush or pinch grip. Furthermore, axis deviations in varus or valgus exert asymmetric constraints also on weight-bearing joints. The prosthetic knee surgery increases exponentially in the last decades by a combined effect of improved techniques and the increased incidence of osteoarthritis. The OA is multifactorial but the weight has a major effect on cartilage wear. We further know that the morphology and deformation of members influence this phenomenon. We wanted to characterize the response of the bone to endostructure these asymmetrical stresses on the tibial plateau. We collected tibial plateaus during total joint replacement surgeries for knee and compare the bone under chondral internal and external with microCT 7.4 micron slices. Some parameters highlight the major effect weight and body mass such as bone volume fraction BV/TV, structure model index SMI, trabecular space Tb. and trabecular number Tb.N. Subchondral densification during osteoarthritis is associated with a reduction in its elastic modulus, which could increase cartilage stress, and accelerate cartilage loss.
Document type :
Theses
Complete list of metadatas

Cited literature [70 references]  Display  Hide  Download

https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01705749
Contributor : Abes Star :  Contact
Submitted on : Friday, February 9, 2018 - 5:19:04 PM
Last modification on : Friday, January 10, 2020 - 9:10:18 PM

File

2017TOU30002B.pdf
Version validated by the jury (STAR)

Identifiers

  • HAL Id : tel-01705749, version 1

Collections

Citation

Nicolas Reina. Les contraintes de charge asymétriques chez l'homme moderne : étude microCT sur l'os trabéculaire. Anthropologie biologique. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30002⟩. ⟨tel-01705749⟩

Share

Metrics

Record views

413

Files downloads

405