Nouveaux matériaux composites à gradient de permittivité structurés par un champ électrique et leur application pour la gradation de potentiel

Abstract : New developments in power electronics allow increasing the power density of the conversion systems. This means that the insulating materials, such as the encapsulation in power modules, are more are more stressed. If the electric field reinforcements in insulating polymers reach critical values, this can lead to a partial discharge activity, electrical treeing and eventually a complete breakdown of the insulation. The objective of this thesis is to study the appropriate matching of the dielectric properties of insulating polymer composites in order to reduce the electrical stress in the regions of field reinforcement. A new approach to minimize the reinforcements is proposed through a local structuration of the composite material allowing an auto-adaptive permittivity gradient where the largest stresses are present. This structuration is achieved thanks to the application of a DC electric field during the elaboration process of the composite material, leading to the displacement of the particles by electrophoresis. The field grading material is an epoxy matrix filled with high permittivity particles (strontium titanate SrTiO3 or barium titanate BaTiO3). Applying a DC electric field on the liquid resin containing the particles induces their accumulation on the high voltage electrode, building an accumulated layer highly concentrated in particles, conferring to this region a higher permittivity. Each region of the structured composite (accumulated layer and low concentrated region) was characterized in terms of dielectric properties (permittivity and losses). While the low concentrated region of particles keeps a permittivity close to that of homogeneous composites one, the accumulated layer exhibits a significant increase due to the increase in the local particle content. The particle concentration in each region of the structured material were precisely determined, and the related permittivity values are in good agreement with the permittivity values of the homogeneous composite materials of the same filler content. This shows that the accumulated layer was not organized in a particular way. Regarding the dielectric strength of the accumulated layer, its values are large enough for the applications and these values follow the typical power law versus thickness. Finite element methods prove that these materials are appropriate for minimizing the electric field reinforcements at the triple point, between the metal, the ceramic and the encapsulation. These results highlight the interests of these new kind of field grading materials. They could allow improving the reliability and the robustness of power modules or other electrical systems working at high field.
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Louis Lévêque. Nouveaux matériaux composites à gradient de permittivité structurés par un champ électrique et leur application pour la gradation de potentiel. Energie électrique. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017TOU30004⟩. ⟨tel-01705744⟩

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