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Etudes comparées de la pathogenèse des virus grippaux chez le porc pré-infecté ou non par Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

Abstract : Swine influenza is an enzootic infection affecting 50% of the French livestock. The infection can be unnoticed but can also induce high morbidity among batches of affected animals, resulting in lower production performance and significant economic losses. The severity of influenza A virus in pig is influenced by many factors such as the virus strain, husbandry practices, the immune status of animals, concomitant infections with other respiratory pathogens, etc. In the same way, various epidemiological forms of influenza exist in farms. Thus, infections can be repeated in all successive batches within a farm, especially among young animals with passive immunity. In order to better understand the clinical and epidemiological diversity of the swine flu, and help develop appropriate strategies to control the disease, we tried to bring new knowledge about factors that promote the exacerbation of the flu syndrome and/or its recurrence, and more generally to give new information about the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of influenza viruses in pigs, in relation to the response of the infected host. Firstly, we compared, through experimental infections of specific pathogen free pigs, the pathogenicity of the two swine influenza viruses mostly detected in pigs in France, i.e. one from the European “avian-like swine H1N1” lineage (H1avN1) and the other one from the European “human-like reassortant swine H1N2” lineage (H1huN2), each one alone or in co-infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), another respiratory pathogen widespread in French farms. We showed that the H1huN2 infection induced a more marked pathology than the H1avN1 infection, and that Mhp pre-infection induced the exacerbation of the H1avN1, but not the H1huN2, infection. Then, we used the Mhp/H1avN1 co-infection model to evaluate alternative approaches that could reduce the impact of influenza infections and their complications: firstly, a supply of compounds with antioxidant properties in food; and secondly, a feed restriction of short duration. In both cases, we showed beneficial effects on zootechnical parameters the days following influenza infection. This work has also brought new knowledge on modulation of oxidative stress markers in plasma, as well as metabolic changes following the co-infection with Mhp and H1avN1 in pigs. The severity of flu clinical manifestations being related, among other, to the quality of the immune responses developed by the infected host, we studied these responses in pigs experimentally infected by H1avN1 and assessed the impact of factors such as the presence of Mhp or maternal derived antibodies on these responses. We showed that the viral infection induced inflammation and interferon response. The Mhp pre-infection exerted an additive effect on inflammation of lung tissue and may promote the virus persistence in the lung. Finally, we have shown that the presence of maternally-derived immunity protected the piglets clinically but did not prevent viral shedding, delayed the T cell response and strongly inhibited the post-infectious humoral response. However, despite the failed humoral immune response, animals were completely protected from a second infection occurring when maternal antibodies had disappeared. Therefore, this work have brought new knowledge on factors influencing influenza infection in pig as well as the underlying mechanisms, which is a prerequisite for improving disease control. They allow, between-other, to consider improving the health and welfare of animals by acting on their diet.
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Submitted on : Friday, February 9, 2018 - 4:39:08 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, October 22, 2019 - 9:02:03 AM


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  • HAL Id : tel-01705697, version 1



Céline Deblanc. Etudes comparées de la pathogenèse des virus grippaux chez le porc pré-infecté ou non par Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Biologie animale. Université Rennes 1, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016REN1B040⟩. ⟨tel-01705697⟩



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