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Transferts de chaleur et de masse lors de l’impact d’une goutte sur une paroi chaude en régime d’ébullition en film : application de diagnostics optiques et modélisation

Abstract : The understanding of phenomena occurring at the impact of a droplet onto a hot wall is crucial for the optimization of spray cooling systems. When the temperature of the wall is high, a vapor layer appears quasi-instantaneously between the droplet and le wall. This film of vapor modifies the hydrodynamic behavior of the droplet and highly reduce the heat and mass transfers in comparison with a wetting impact. Modelling these phenomena is complex because of the numerous coupling between the heat and mass transfers and the fluids dynamic. To get some insights into this phenomenon, optical diagnostic techniques have been developed. Two color planar laser induced fluorescence imaging allows characterizing the distribution of the temperature inside the droplet. Images of the temperature fields, resolved both spatially and temporally, are recorded thanks to the use of a couple of fluorescent dyes keeping a high temperature sensitivity even when they are excited by a nanosecond pulsed laser with and an energy of hundreds m J. In parallel, the infrared thermography is used to determine the temperature of the impinged surface made of sapphire. For that, this surface is coated with a thin film (about 300 nanometers) of TiAlN, highly emissive in the IR domain as opposed to the sapphire which is transparent in it. High frame rate image sequences are analyzed thanks to an analytical inversion model, taking into account the thermal conduction in the sapphire, in order to estimate the heat flux density at the impact surface. The thickness of the vapor layer was also deduced from this measurements thanks to the hypothesis of a dominant thermal conduction in the vapor layer. A study of water drop impact was performed with different impact speeds, wall temperatures and different drop injection temperatures. In most of the cases, the heat flux extracted from the wall in close to the flux transferred to the liquid phase of the droplet. When the wall temperature approaches or exceeds the Leidenfrost temperature, the transfers become more sensitive to the Weber number and less sensitive to the wall temperature. The vapor layer thickness is affected by instabilities whose caracteristics (wavelengths, amplitude) were investigated from the IR images. Eventually, a 1-Dsemi-empirical model is given for describing the heating of the liquid part of the droplet and the growth of vapor layer. The effect of the pressure exerted by the droplet onto the vapor film rapidly decreases during the impact process, so that the growth of the vapor film is only driven by the heat transferred by conduction to the droplet and not by dynamical parameters such as the impact velocity
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Submitted on : Friday, February 9, 2018 - 9:22:06 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, February 15, 2018 - 3:18:23 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01705075, version 1

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William Chaze. Transferts de chaleur et de masse lors de l’impact d’une goutte sur une paroi chaude en régime d’ébullition en film : application de diagnostics optiques et modélisation. Milieux fluides et réactifs. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0290⟩. ⟨tel-01705075⟩

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