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Theses

Évolution de la virulence et infections multiples

Mircea Sofonea 1
1 MIVEGEC-ETE - Evolution Théorique et Expérimentale
Perturbations, Evolution, Virulence
Abstract : Natural populations of living beings are exposed to a diversity of parasites, be they several species, strains or more generally types. While some evolutionary epidemiology models already incorporate parasite polymorphism, few make the connection between between-host dynamics and within-host parasite growth. As parasite polymorphism can even occur within the same host, distinct parasite types can interact in various ways and thus interfere with their transmission and therefore their evolution. The combinatorial and dynamical complexity explains why we still lack general predictions regarding the evolution of virulence in such multiple infection contexts. Seeking for a general trend in virulence evolution, we model each dynamical level on which parasite evolution relies. In particular, we explicitly investigate the within-host interactions and competition outcomes, the epidemiological and adaptive dynamics. Focusing on chronic infections caused by horizontally-transmitted microparasites, we apply both dynamical systems and probabilistic approaches to this nested sequence of dynamics to explore the evolutionary outcomes. We notably define the concept of infection pattern, that is the set of within-host outcomes of all inoculation challenges and identify five yet undescribed patterns that escape from the classical super/coinfection dichotomy. This typology then allows us to address virulence evolution under a general framework. We in particular observe an unavoidable but bounded evolutionary increase in virulence.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01704686
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 8, 2018 - 4:09:08 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, October 20, 2020 - 12:22:52 PM
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Mircea Sofonea. Évolution de la virulence et infections multiples. Biologie animale. Université Montpellier, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MONTT114⟩. ⟨tel-01704686⟩

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