Interactions entre tectonique et hydrothermalisme : Rôle de la faille normale de la Têt sur la circulation hydrothermale et la distribution des sources thermales des Pyrénées Orientales.

Abstract : Non-magmatic hydrothermal systems in mountain ranges are poorly studied compared to extensive ones. They likely involve similar processes than those highlighted for other hydro-geothermal continental systems, however questions remain about : 1) the water origin and the structures responsible for efficient infiltrations, 2) the type of pathways from depth to the hot springs, and the conservation of the draining capacity, 3) the geometry and amplitude of the thermal anomalies and subsequent fluid-rock interactions in the deep transfer zone.In Eastern Pyrénées (France), the alignment of 29 hot springs (29-73°C) along the brittle Têt fault and its related high topography allows studying these processes.The integrative analysis of remote sensing, multi-scale geological field observations and hydrothermal fluid geochemistry, provides strong constraints to establish a realistic 3D numerical model coupling heat transfers with fluid flows. From the infiltration areas to the springs at the surface, we show that :1. The hydrothermal fluids have a meteoric origin and infiltrate at high altitude (>2200 m). Three intersecting fracture sets, resulting from three consecutive tectonic stages, pervasively distribute on the infiltration areas. They probably are efficient structures to transfer fluids through the crust to the hot springs.2. Hot springs are mostly located close to the Têt fault, in its footwall, at the base of the most elevated topography. They always localize in crystalline rocks, at the interface with metasediments, related to unfaulted or faulted contacts by brittle or old ductile faults. Hot spring locations also match with intersections of brittle-fault damage zones.3. Geochemistry of hydrothermal fluids indicates similar rock-water interactions for all the springs, suggesting a transfer zone of similar lithology. There is no mixing with superficial water, suggesting that differences of temperatures between hot springs are related to multiple pathways deriving from a thermal anomaly. In numerical models, flows mainly come from high reliefs in the fault footwall, or circulate along the fault plane. Hot spring temperatures depend on the temperature reached at depth, which depends on the flow depth. Flow distribution in the crust depends on the topography, both of the fault scarp and along the fault. The tops of the topography are infiltration areas, while low elevations are resurgence areas.The understanding of fault and topography-related hydrothermal systems has strong implications for thermalism and for geothermal exploration.
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Audrey Taillefer. Interactions entre tectonique et hydrothermalisme : Rôle de la faille normale de la Têt sur la circulation hydrothermale et la distribution des sources thermales des Pyrénées Orientales.. Sciences de la Terre. Université Montpellier, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MONTT118⟩. ⟨tel-01704673⟩

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