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Conception et exploitation d’un dispositif expérimental instrumenté pour la prévision de la dégradation de la qualité nutritionnelle et de l’inactivation microorganismes dans les fruits et légumes transformés

Abstract : Canning involves thermal treatments performed at high temperatures, which may alter nutrional quality of food products. Indeed, some vitamins, like vitamin C, are very heat sensitive.The aim of the project PREDINUT was to propose a decision support tool that predicts vitamin C (as indicator of nutritional quality) degradation in given conditions of time/temperature, in order to optimise processes.A thermoresistometer Mastia® was used to reach the temperature and pressure conditions encountered during canning. The impact of the variation pH, initial concentration of ascorbic acid or again partial pressure of oxygen in headspace, on ascorbic acid degradation was studied in model solution. Studies were also performed in apple puree, carrot puree and carrot juice in order to obtain a destruction profile of vitamin C in real foods. . The temperature range studied was from 95 to 125 °C, the fixed pH in model solution was from 2.5 to 5.5 in strict anaerobic conditions, and 3.5 in aerobic conditions (3.5 being the pH value of common fruits), initial concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 150 to 900 mg/100mL, and the partial pressure of oxygen from 30000 to 100000 Pa. Foods were enriched in ascorbic acid (up to 450 mg/mL), and the pH value was not adjusted.Models were established to describe the kinetics of vitamin C degradation in aerobiosis and anaerobiosis. En absence of oxygen ascorbic acid degradation was well described by a first order kinetics (except at pH = 4.5). In presence of oxygen the degradation speed increased with head-space oxygen’s partial pressure but very little with temperature. Apparent reaction orders varying from 0.5 to 0.75, depending on the partial pressure of oxygen in the headspace, fitted the data better than first-order.In foods, degradation kinetics of vitamin C appeared more complex, with eventual presence of plateaus followed by acceleration of the reaction. Definitely more knowledge on mechanisms is needed to predict ascorbic acid degradation in real foods.
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Nizar Al Fata. Conception et exploitation d’un dispositif expérimental instrumenté pour la prévision de la dégradation de la qualité nutritionnelle et de l’inactivation microorganismes dans les fruits et légumes transformés. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université d'Avignon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017AVIG0265⟩. ⟨tel-01704619⟩

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