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Elaboration d'un modèle structural, pétrophysique et mécanique des failles en milieu gréseux poreux : implication pour la migration et le piégeage des fluides

Abstract : Deformation through cataclasis, which corresponds to grain crushing, is an effective process of porosity and permeability reduction in porous sandstones, classical aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs at depth. A major stake concerning the deformation in sandstone is to understand what processes govern the growth of the cataclastic structures and to recognize what parameters influence the expression of the deformation at microscopic scale and at basin scale.In this study, we focus on the analysis of cataclastic deformation band clusters in order to consider a significantly concentrated deformation regarding the potential of fluid flow baffling. We select seven study sites presenting clusters formed in extensional and contractional tectonics, under different Andersonian regimes, at various burial depths and in sandstones of varying lithologies. To complement the structural analysis, we use an analytical approach to estimate the stress-state evolution of the sandstones leading to deformation. Numerical modeling allows the analysis of the influence of physical parameters on the structuring of the deformation.We show that the position of failure along the failure envelope of the sandstone (which depends on its lithology) seems to determine the morphology of deformation. On the other hand, normal, strike-slip and thrust Andersonian regime clusters respectively seem to form frequently on the same part of the envelope.Normal regime clusters (favorably formed in extensional tectonics) have thin to medium thickness, with high band density and form, with other clusters, networks of km-scale length - often localized near a major fault. They are likely to baffle fluid flow. Strike-slip regime clusters (favorably formed in contractional tectonics) have medium thickness with medium band densities. Due to their sparseness, they seem unlikely to form a baffle for fluids. Thrust regime clusters (favorably formed in contractional tectonics) have medium thickness and medium band density if failure is attained on the brittle part of the envelope. They seem potentially thicker, with low band density and tend to form arrays of deformation bands if failure is attained on the cap of the envelope. Because they are short and sparse, they do not represent an effective baffle for fluid flow.We relate the process of cluster growth and their resulting morphology to the microscopic arrangement of the clasts in the deformed material. The minor compaction in the deformed material of normal and strike-slip regime clusters seems to be at the origin of the dense localization of the bands through the presence of weaker planes in the deformed material. For the same degree of deformation, the more compacted material in thrust regime clusters would favor the distribution of the bands.Faulting of normal regime clusters is enhanced by the presence of layers including weak minerals between the sandstones. These weak layers are responsible for the initiation and propagation of major slip-surfaces in the adjacent sandstone from small displacements. The initiation of major slip-surfaces is also favored when porous sandstone is juxtaposed with a hard lithology.We find that the quartz cementation of the most deformed parts of the clusters is common, even in clusters that were never buried below 800 m. This cementation is promoted by an intense degree of cataclasis, seems to form by “self-healing”, and may reduce the petrophysical properties of clusters.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01704602
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Sven Philit. Elaboration d'un modèle structural, pétrophysique et mécanique des failles en milieu gréseux poreux : implication pour la migration et le piégeage des fluides. Sciences de la Terre. Université Montpellier, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MONTT090⟩. ⟨tel-01704602⟩

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