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Décryptage des réseaux d'interactions plante-champignon pour une meilleure gestion des subéraies méditerranéennes

Abstract : The Cork oak (Quercus suber) forests play an important role in terms of ecological services and socio-economic development for the Mediterranean populations. However, the cork oak forests, notably in the Southern Mediterranean basin are highly threatened by increasing human and climate pressures, which accelerates desertication. The conservation of this ecosytem is strongly dependent of our ability to predict the environmental changes induced by these pressures as well as to develop sustainable approach for their restoration. In this context, the identification of biological indicators of cork oak health and the intensification of plant-plant facilitation processes appears as promisising ecological strategies. Their success is however subjected to our understanding of plant-fungal interactions, notably with fungal mycorrhiza, key factors of forest ecosystem functionning. The current work aimed at deciphering plant-fungal networks, notably mycorrhizal networks with cork oak and its understory shrub vegetation in three Moroccan cork oak habitats (Maâmora, Benslimane, Chefchaoun) characterized by different degradation levels. The root-fungal diversity associated to cork oak and major components of its understory shrub vegetation (Cistus salviifolius, Cistus monpeliensis et Lavandula stoechas) has been analysed by combining traditional methods based on morphological identification, and new generation high- throughput DNA sequencing methods to characterize communities at the molecular level.The study represents the most extensive survey of soil fungal diversity, notably mycorrhizal diversity, in Moroccan cork oak ecosystems. Different fungal community structures were revealed, depending on habitat, plant host type, and degradation forest status. A wide range of fungal indicators of plant type × forest status has been identified, highlighting the importance of several ectomycorrhizal fungi (notably Cenococcum, Russula, Terfezia and Tomentella) as well as ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (Cladophialophora, Oidiodendron) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus, Redeckera, Racocetra, and Paraglomus). The current work provides an extensive database on the ecology of soil fungi related to the Moroccan cork oak forest, offers new insights into the potential of soil fungi for monitoring the health of the cork oak forest, and for the developement of efficient conservation programs of this ecosystem by taking into account the soil fungal communties associated. The use of proposed appoaches to a larger diversity of forest ecosystems are promising to better understand the biological fonctionning of forest ecosystem and their conservation in response to the worsening of worldwide human and climate pressures.
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Fatima-Zahra Maghnia. Décryptage des réseaux d'interactions plante-champignon pour une meilleure gestion des subéraies méditerranéennes. Biologie végétale. Université Montpellier; Université Sidi Mohamed ben Abdellah (Fès, Maroc), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017MONTT073⟩. ⟨tel-01704588⟩

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