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Analyse des conflits et synergies entre services écosystémiques multiples en vergers de pommiers

Abstract : The concept of « ecosystem service », which has been used increasingly since the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment in 2005, has highlighted the importance of ecosystem’s non-marketed performances. In orchards, ensuring high productivity while preserving natural resources and human health has become a real challenge that could be analyzed with the concept of ecosystem service. Which ecosystem services are delivered in an apple orchard? How to analyze them? What are the relationships - conflicts or synergies – among multiple ecosystem services and how do cropping systems change multiple ecosystem service profiles? This PhD work aims at answering those questions with an innovative approach combining experimental measures, modeling and statistical analysis.Based on a literature review of ecosystem services in orchards, five services were selected: fruit production, nitrogen availability in soil, climate regulation based on the prevention of nitrogen denitrification and on carbon sequestration, maintenance and regulation of water cycle, including water quality, and pest control. We also considered the environmental disturbances caused by the use of pesticides. For each service, we identified the underlying ecosystem functions as well as the agricultural practices and soil and climate conditions affecting these functions. Services and functions were described by one or multiple indicators and quantified using models in the case of (i) nine existing cropping systems on two experimental sites in southeastern France differing in terms of soil and climate conditions, and (ii) 150 virtual cropping systems designed out of the combination of five major agricultural practice levers and their modalities, in identical soil and climate conditions. The two models used were STICS, a generic soil-crop simulation model under the influence of practices which required a parameterization and an evaluation on apple orchards based on experimental measures, and IPSIM, a generic modeling framework simulating the impacts of agricultural practices and local conditions on crop injuries caused by pests. IPSIM was parameterized on apple orchards, based on an important literature review and expert opinions. Model simulations were analyzed with simple statistics in the case of the nine existing cropping systems and with two-table multivariate analyses (principal component analysis with instrumental variables) for virtual cropping systems.Concerning the existing cropping systems, 14 important relationships were identified among ecosystem services, especially conflicts, like the one between nitrogen denitrification or leaching prevention and soil nitrogen availability on the short term, and synergies such as the one between soil humidity or carbon sequestration and nitrogen availability on the short term. These relationships are explained by the underlying ecosystem functions. Comparing service profiles among cropping systems highlighted the impacts of agricultural practices on some services. That way, on a same site, a high planting density increases fruit production and carbon sequestration. An exclusively organic fertilization decreases fruit production through nitrogen stress but also nitrogen leaching in drained water. Furthermore, service profiles are strongly influenced by the soil and climate conditions of each site. These results strengthen the need to explicitly consider the ‘agricultural practices x soil and climate conditions’ interdependence in order to analyze ecosystem services. The results obtained with the virtual cropping systems simulations confirmed those of the existing ones and gave precision on the impacts of fertilization, irrigation and pest control for codling moth, rosy apple aphid and apple scab on ecosystem functions and services.
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Constance Demestihas. Analyse des conflits et synergies entre services écosystémiques multiples en vergers de pommiers. Sciences agricoles. Université d'Avignon, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017AVIG0690⟩. ⟨tel-01704580⟩

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