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Entre chasse et pastoralisme, l'art rupestre de la région d'Arica-Parinacota (Chili)

Abstract : In the far north of Chile, in the region of Arica-Parinacota, this research, centered on the study of three decorated shelters (Vilacaurani, Incani and Anocariri), aim at highlighting the socioeconomic and cultural stages of the transformation of the Andean populations in connection with the process of the animal domestication. Between 2800 and 3800 m in Andean Piedmont, the human settling seems to correspond to the ecosystem of certain species such as the guanaco and the taruca abundantly hunted during the most ancient periods. The most important testimonies of this activity, so far known, are found at the heart of shelters or on wide panels through impressive polychromatic frescoes. The artists put the accent on the animal figure, mainly Camelidae of the genus Lama (guanaco and llama) and on the representation of varied scenes such hunting, capture or grazing. These representations are significant because they evoke possible phases of the Camelid’s domestication which began around 6000 BP in the central Andes (Wings, 1986 ; Wheeler et al., 1977 ; Lavallée et Julien, 1980 ; Lavallée et al., 1995) which result in the development of the pastoral societies and the economy of production in the Andean highlands. Nevertheless, mechanisms working in this transformation remain badly known. This research offers a new reading of the artistic manifestations as first source of information to understand the socioeconomic and cultural transition of the populations in the highlands. Through the study of the pictorial scenes and the impressive system of overlapping of figures, we are capable of describing the progressive sliding, both on the technical plan and the symbolism, and the transitory stages which characterize the passage of an economy mainly based on hunting to a pastoral economy.
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 8, 2018 - 12:18:13 PM
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Carole Dudognon. Entre chasse et pastoralisme, l'art rupestre de la région d'Arica-Parinacota (Chili). Archéologie et Préhistoire. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016TOU20041⟩. ⟨tel-01704211⟩

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