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Mécanismes de défense hémocytaires chez Mytilus edulis‎ : interactions avec Vibrio Splendidus sp. et modulation du phénotype MXR par les contaminants environnementaux

Abstract : Mytilus edulis is a bivalve mollusc representing an economic and ecotoxicological interest. This sentinel species is known for its resistance to chemical and biological contaminants. However, for few years, abnormal mortality events have been reported for farmed blue mussels in France where different Vibrio strains were isolated. The first section of this thesis describes cellular and physiological interactions of V. Splendidus isolates with the blue mussel. Experimental infections allowed the selection of two isolates affiliated to V. splendidus/V. hemicentroti type strains: a virulent 10/068 1T1 and an innocuous 12/056 M24T1. These two strains were GFP-tagged and validated for their growth characteristics and virulence as genuine models for exposure. V. splendidus 10/068 1T1 is capable to alter different functions of hemocytes including motility, adhesion, internalization, ROS production, phagosome maturation and viability, unlike the avirulent strain. Furthermore, bacterial extracellular products appeared toxic and inhibit cellular responses (internalization and ROS production). Finally, we successfully reproduced experimental infection by water tank cohabitation assays with septic animals. Infection monitoring shows the targeting of gills by bacteria. The second section explores the MXR (MultiXenobiotic Resistance) system functioning in the blue mussel. For the first time, a complete ABCG2 amino acid sequence was established. Molecular characterization shows the presence of the abcg2 transcript in hemocytes and gills and its homology with other proteins from various species. The combination of the fluorescent probes bodipy prazosin and pheophorbide A with specific blockers demonstrate the transporter efflux activity and its heterogeneity in tissues and cells. Moreover, the expression of three ABC transporters (abcb, abcc, abcg2) identified in the blue mussel has been shown to be modulated by chemical contaminants. Mussels exposed to BaP in the laboratory or collected from contaminated mussel beds in the field show upregulated abc transcripts in gills whereas these mRNA undergone a downregulation in hemocytes. Season had also an effect on mRNA levels and interacted with site effects. Only the abcb gene displayed a more abundant mRNA level in gills dissected from animals collected in the more polluted area all over the diachronic study. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the vulnerability of the blue mussel towards a pathogen. The immunotoxic impact of environmental xenobiotics and the precise role of ABC efflux pumps in the immune system of the mussel has yet to be explored.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01703593
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 8, 2018 - 1:01:20 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01703593, version 1

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Yosra Ben Cheikh. Mécanismes de défense hémocytaires chez Mytilus edulis‎ : interactions avec Vibrio Splendidus sp. et modulation du phénotype MXR par les contaminants environnementaux. Autre [q-bio.OT]. Normandie Université, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NORMLH01⟩. ⟨tel-01703593⟩

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