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Ciblage de MYC par étude de l'axe LIN28B/let-7 et de l'initiation de la traduction dans le myélome multiple

Abstract : MYC is a major oncogenic driver of Multiple Myeloma (MM) and yet almost no therapeutic agents exist that target MYC in MM. Here we report that the let-7 biogenesis inhibitor LIN28B correlates with MYC expression in MM and is associated with adverse outcome. We also demonstrate that the LIN28B/let-7 axis modulates the expression of MYC, itself a let-7 target. Further, perturbation of the axis regulates the proliferation of MM cells in vivo in a xenograft tumor model. RNA-sequencing and gene set enrichment analyses of CRISPR-engineered cells suggested that the LIN28/let-7 axis regulates MYC and cell cycle pathways in MM. We provide proof of principle for therapeutic regulation of MYC through let-7 with an LNA-GapmeR (locked nucleic acid-GapmeR) containing a let-7b mimic in vivo, demonstrating that high levels of let-7 expression repress tumor growth by regulating MYC expression. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of therapeutic targeting of MYC through the LIN28B/let-7 axis in MM. We next sought to establish new biomarkers in MM, enable to capture the molecular alterations of the disease. For this purpose, we examined the prognostic significance of circulating exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) in a cohort of 156 patients with newly diagnosed MM, uniformly treated and followed. Circulating exosomal miRNAs were isolated and used to perform small RNA sequencing analysis on 10 samples and a qRT-PCR array on 156 samples. We studied the relationship between miRNA levels and patient outcomes including progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). We identified miRNAs as the most predominant small RNAs present in exosomes isolated from the serum of MM patients and healthy controls by small RNA sequencing of circulating exosomes and used a qRT-PCR assay to measure the expression of 22 exosomal miRNAs. Two of them, namely let-7b and miR-18a, were significantly associated with both PFS and OS in the univariate analysis, and were still statistically significant after adjusting for the International Staging System (ISS), and adverse cytogenetics in the multivariate analysis. Our findings support the use of circulating exosomal let-7b and miR-18a improves the identification of patients with newly diagnosed MM with poor outcomes. Finally, to better understand the oncogenic program driven by MYC and investigate its potential as a therapeutic target, we screened a chemically diverse small molecule library for anti-MM activity in cell lines with high expression of MYC. The most potent hits identified were rocaglate-scaffold inhibitors of translation initiation. Expression profiling of MM cells revealed reversion of the oncogenic MYC-driven transcriptional program by CMLD010509, the most promising rocaglate. Proteome-wide, reversion correlated with selective depletion of short-lived proteins that are key to MM growth and survival, most notably MYC, MDM2, CCND1, MAF, and MCL-1. The efficacy of CMLD010509 in several mouse models of MM confirmed the therapeutic relevance of these findings in vivo and supports the feasibility of targeting the oncogenic MYC-driven translation program in MM with rocaglates.
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Salomon Manier. Ciblage de MYC par étude de l'axe LIN28B/let-7 et de l'initiation de la traduction dans le myélome multiple. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIL2S012⟩. ⟨tel-01702351⟩

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