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Elaboration de matériaux à gradient de fonction céramique / métal par SPS pour la protection balistique

Abstract : The objective is to improve ballistic performance of armors. A perfect armor combines ductility to resistto the impact and high hardness to stop projectile’s fragments. However, such an association of properties is inconsistent witha single material. The solution is to perform a functionally graded material (FGM) with a ductile metal at the back side of thesample and a hard ceramic on the top side. Non-conventional technologies like Spark Plasma Sintering allow joining orsintering all types of materials with different and additional properties. Furthermore, with this technique, high heating ratescan be achieved, limiting grain growth and resulting in a fine microstructure. The goal is to study joining conditions or cosinteringof such materials (in this case, Al2O3 and Ti), as well as the resulting microstructure on the ballistic efficiency.The first part of the study focused on the characterization of alumina and titanium. Five powders of alumina werestudied from a sintering point of view. Three of which were selected because of their interesting microstructures, close indensities and grain sizes. These ceramics have been characterized mechanically (hardness, toughness and strength) andballistically. One of them is adopted to realize FGM. Titanium, sintered with the same conditions, unfortunately, doesn’t haveexpected properties (absence of ductility).The second part of the work showed that the preparation of FGM without cracks from Al2O3 and Ti only ischallenging, with an interlayer with one or more layers. The strong affinity of Ti with oxygen (formation of oxides orinsertion) with C (forming carbides) and its reactivity with alumina (forming intermetallics) make the FGM brittle and enablethe release of residual stresses during the process. By adding a low amount of nickel (more ductile and less reactive withoxygen and titanium) in composites, FGMs almost without cracks were obtained. The latter were evaluated ballistically.
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Clémentine Madec. Elaboration de matériaux à gradient de fonction céramique / métal par SPS pour la protection balistique. Chimie théorique et/ou physique. Université de Bourgogne, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016DIJOS057⟩. ⟨tel-01701938⟩

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