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Modèles animaux et pathologies humaines : caractérisation de 3 lignées murines ENU présentant des anomalies du système vestibulaire ou locomoteur

Abstract : The random chemical mutagenesis with the Ethyl-Nitroso-Urea (ENU), whose power has been widely demonstrated during these last decades in the murine models creation, is a remarkable and essential tool in functional genomics. This approach is indeed a significant contribution to the understanding of the genes’ function and regulation; it also establishes an accelerator to identify the key elements in a signaling pathway. This systematic approach, based on the simultaneous screening of a large number of mice, requires no prior knowledge on the identity and the function of the studied genes. The mutants are identified through specific, hierarchical and non-invasive phenotypic screens. The identification of the gene and the causal mutation responsible for the mutant phenotype are achieved by gene mapping by using a series of polymorphic markers or by new generation sequencing. The objective of my thesis has been to characterize at the phenotypic and molecular level 3 independent murine lines from two ENU screens, a recessive and a sensitized dominant one. The first screen aimed to develop models for human diseases, from which has been isolated the vbd murine line, presenting vestibular system defects due to a mutation in the Otog gene coding for the otogelin. This mouse line presents a model for human deafness. The second screen had been established in order to deepen our fundamental knowledge on the skeletto-muscular system development in mammals, more particularly in humans and cattle. Analyzes of two lines from this screen, GMA24 and GMA06, have allowed to identify the mutation in Phex gene for GMA24 mice showing a growth retardation and modeling XLH (X-linked Hypophosphatemic rickets) disease in humans. For the GMA06 mice presenting an increase muscle mass, the mutation has been localized on chromosome 2 and its identification is in progress. These three murine models are interesting added tools to the existing models for deafness, XLH and myopathies diseases for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms and genetic interactions involved in these pathologies and so testing new therapies.
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Carole El Hakam. Modèles animaux et pathologies humaines : caractérisation de 3 lignées murines ENU présentant des anomalies du système vestibulaire ou locomoteur. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Limoges, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LIMO0004⟩. ⟨tel-01701634⟩

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