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Rôle de miR-21 dans la progression tumorale et la chimiorésistance des carcinomes rénaux à cellules claires : étude de la boucle de régulation entre miR-21 et PPARα

Abstract : Renal clear cell carcinoma (cRCC) is the major histological type of renal carcinoma and one of the most chemo- and radio-resistant tumors. The absence of biomarkers for early detection and for monitoring patients is responsible of a poor prognosis. It is necessary to identify new biomarkers and therapeutic targets to improve patient care. MicroRNAs, small noncoding RNAs of 22 nucleotides, which have been previously shown to promote malignant initiation and progression, appear to be good candidates.We focused our study on (i) miR-21 which is the main overexpressed oncomirs in cRCC and (ii) the nuclear receptor PPARα (Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor), one of miR-21 targets.In one hand, by using a cohort of 99 primary cRCC samples, we showed that miR-21 expression in cancer tissues was higher than in adjacent non-tumor tissues. In vitro, miR-21 was also overexpressed in renal carcinoma cell lines compared to HK-2 human proximal tubule epithelial cell line. Moreover, we also showed that miR-21 overexpression increased migratory, invasive, proliferative, and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways whereas opposite results were observed using an anti-miR-21-based silencing strategy. Finally, we assessed the role of miR-21 in mediating cRCC chemoresistance and further showed that miR-21 silencing significantly increased chemosensitivity of paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and dovitinib, decreased expression of multi-drug resistance genes and increased SLC22A1/OCT1, SLC22A2/OCT2 and SLC31A1/CTR1 platinum influx transporter expression. These results led to the publication of an article in Tumor Biology in annex.In other hand, in cRCC tissue patients, we showed for the first time that miR-21 overexpression correlates with a loss of expression of PPARα. In vitro, we showed that miR-21 targets PPARα 3'-UTR and decreases its protein expression and miR-21 overexpression decreases the transcriptional activity of PPARα. Furthermore, PPARα overexpression and activation decrease miR-21 expression. In fact, PPARα interacts with AP-1 and NF-kappaB transcription factors and thus prevents their binding to the miR-21 promoter thus decreasing its transcription.In conclusion, we have shown that (i) miR-21 is a key actor of renal cancer progression and plays an important role in the resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs and (ii) there is a negative regulatory loop between miR-21 and PPARα in cRCC.
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Kelly Gaudelot. Rôle de miR-21 dans la progression tumorale et la chimiorésistance des carcinomes rénaux à cellules claires : étude de la boucle de régulation entre miR-21 et PPARα. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université du Droit et de la Santé - Lille II, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIL2S011⟩. ⟨tel-01701149⟩

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