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Estimation du risque attribuable et de la fraction préventive dans les études de cohorte

Abstract : The attributable risk (AR) measures the proportion of disease cases that can be attributed to an exposure in the population. Several definitions and estimation methods have been proposed for survival data. Using simulations, we compared four methods for estimating AR defined in terms of survival functions: two nonparametric methods based on Kaplan-Meier's estimator, one semiparametric based on Cox's model, and one parametric based on the piecewise constant hazards model. Our results suggest to use the semiparametric or parametric approaches to estimate AR if the proportional hazards assumption appears appropriate. These methods were applied to the E3N women cohort data to estimate the AR of breast cancer due to menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). We showed that about 9% of cases of breast cancer were attributable to MHT use at baseline. In case of a protective exposure, an alternative to the AR is the prevented fraction (PF) which measures the proportion of disease cases that could be avoided in the presence of a protective exposure in the population. The definition and estimation of PF have never been considered for cohort studies in the survival analysis context. We defined the PF in cohort studies with survival data and proposed two estimation methods: a semiparametric method based on Cox’s proportional hazards model and a parametric method based on a piecewise constant hazards model with an extension to competing risks. Using data of the Three-City (3C) cohort study, we found that approximately 9% of cases of stroke could be avoided using lipid-lowering drugs (statins or fibrates) in the elderly population. Our study shows that the PF can be estimated to evaluate the impact of beneficial drugs in observational cohort studies while taking potential confounding factors and competing risks into account.
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Malamine Gassama. Estimation du risque attribuable et de la fraction préventive dans les études de cohorte. Santé publique et épidémiologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLV131⟩. ⟨tel-01699279⟩

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