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L’évolution de la notion de « bellum iustum » à Rome des origines à Saint Augustin

Abstract : We often know the Roman conception of just war (bellum iustum) through a few canonical texts: Tite-Live’s description of the war-declaration fetial ritual (T.L.I, 32), various reflections from Cicero in his philosophical treaties, and from various writings by Saint Augustine, said to be the foundation of a “Christiandoctrine” of the just war, which will be picked up by Thomas Aquinas. The project for this thesis is to show the evolution through centuries of the notion of bellum iustum over a period of more than 1,000 years of Roman history, from a magical stage to a religious stage, on to an institutional one, when it becomes the instrument of an imperial ideology. It then integrates Greek philosophy before being appropriated by Christianity, in the 4th century, in the form of a “victory theology”. It is finally transmuted by Saint Augustine. As the Romans, being conservative, do not reject anything from their past, we will follow the evolutions,rather than ruptures, that allowed a notion originated in the depths of Indo-European mythology to reach the threshold of the Middle Ages and then the present day, since Augustine is still regarded as the founder of the modern theory of just war.
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Jean-François Chemain. L’évolution de la notion de « bellum iustum » à Rome des origines à Saint Augustin. Droit. Université d'Angers, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ANGE0043⟩. ⟨tel-01699119⟩

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