Mais pourquoi arrivent-ils tous à la même heure ? Le paradoxe de l’heure de pointe et des horaires de travail flexibles.

Abstract : At the core of city life, work hours set the rhythm of daily activities and movement. We are therefore investigating the possibility of staggering the start of the work day in order to reduce congestion at morning rush hour. Suggestions typically put forward are based on considerations of a tactical nature: it is companies’ schedules which dictate that workers all commute at the same time. Thus, one proposed solution is to promote flexible work schedules. But our observations call this idea into question: in Île-de-France, as far as public transportation is concerned, flexible work scheduling actually magnifies the number of commuters who arrive at work during rush hour. This paradoxical observation makes it necessary to change the way we usually think of the rush hour phenomenon. Before trying to solve peak congestions problems, we need to understand the underlying reasons on which an individual’s work schedule choices are based. Why does a worker with flexible work hours commute during rush hour? Our research adopts a comprehensive approach and focuses on daily scheduling demands. It relies on the results of a survey (3202 respondents) and interviews (29). Respondents and interviewees are executives from the Plaine Saint-Denis area. To describe temporal strategies that explain voluntary commuting during peak hours, we organize our hypotheses along three dimensions: (I) There remain coupling constraints (school hours, meeting hours) which force workers with flexible hours to go to work during peak hours. (II) Workers with flexible hours and fewer coupling constraints prefer (late afternoon leisure, activities with family and friends) to arrive before or during the rush hour. (III) There are social norms regarding work hours (ideal of the disciplined worker or the dedicated executive) that limit flexibility by frowning on those who arrive overly late at the office. Confirmation of these hypotheses opens the way to a renewed reading of the rush hour phenomenon in the age of flexibility: individualized (work) hours do not result in desynchronized (work) schedules. In conclusion, it is by revealing the organic intricacy of work synchronisation that our thesis generates operational recommendations for reducing congestion at peak hours.
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Emmanuel Munch. Mais pourquoi arrivent-ils tous à la même heure ? Le paradoxe de l’heure de pointe et des horaires de travail flexibles.. Sociologie. Université Paris Est, 2017. Français. ⟨tel-01699034⟩

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