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Contribution à l’étude de techniques de codage analogique pour l’imagerie microonde active et passive

Abstract : Microwave imaging systems are currently attracting great attention in the field of research, especially for security applications (body scanners, vision through walls, etc.). Several acquisition techniques already exist to optimize the antenna aperture in order to guarantee a good resolution on the final image. However, the current lock of imaging systems is to be able to achieve a real-time acquisition and address numerous antennas. Most of the current systems struggle to reconcile fast imaging and resolution while ensuring good sensitivity. The work carried out in this manuscript aims at proposing an alternative to the existing systems based on analog coding techniques of the antenna signals. Overall, the goal is to minimize the number of receivers without affecting performances. The proposed architectures are based essentially on the concept of the MIMO radar (for active systems) and the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radiometer or SAIR (for passive systems). These two systems allow a significant reduction of the number of antennas without affecting the resolution of the image, thus enabling a first lifting of constraints. In addition, passive compressive components are used to reduce the number of receivers in the MIMO Radar and the SAIR systems. These components with spatial and frequency diversity exhibit orthogonal transfer functions. Used in transmission, they allow simultaneous and independent addressing of each element of the antenna array. In reception, they allow the signals received by the antennas to be coded into a considerably reduced number of aggregate waveforms. By applying suitable decoding techniques, the signals received by each antenna can be estimated in order to apply imaging algorithms. These components offer the advantage of greatly reducing the number of RF channels while keeping the same number of antennas and allowing simultaneous acquisition of the signals. Laboratory demonstrators were carried out in S-band to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed alternatives. Finally, the results obtained were the subject of a patent application and a prototype of a millimeter-wave radiometric imager is being developed in the framework of the ANR-PIXEL project.
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Submitted on : Thursday, February 1, 2018 - 3:57:10 PM
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Ettien Lazare Kpre. Contribution à l’étude de techniques de codage analogique pour l’imagerie microonde active et passive. Traitement du signal et de l'image [eess.SP]. Université de Limoges, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LIMO0060⟩. ⟨tel-01698747⟩

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