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Étude numérique et expérimentale des transferts couplés de masse et de chaleur dans l’absorbeur d’une machine à absorption ammoniac-eau.

Abstract : Ammonia-water absorption chillers are promising both for solar air conditioning and for industry processes. To become competitive compared to electric compression chillers, their efficiency needs to be improved and their cost has to be decreased. This thesis study takes place in this context.The focus is put on the absorber, which is one of the most critical component of absorption chillers in terms of compactness, cost and efficiency. The purpose is to study numerically and experimentally coupled heat and mass transfers which occur in the absorber in order to predict and improve its overall performances.Two falling film absorbers are analysed. In both of them, the poor solution and the vapour enter at the top and the coolant fluid enters at the bottom of the absorber. The first absorber is a brazed plate heat exchanger and the second is a gasketed plate-and-frame heat exchanger with different geometric dimensions and plates corrugations.The experimental study of these two absorbers is performed in real working conditions on an instrumented ammonia-water absorption chiller prototype of 5 KW. Thanks to this device, a global analysis of vapour absorbed mass flow rates, absorbed heat fluxes and mass effectiveness is achieved. A local analysis is also performed thanks to temperature measures inside channels of coolant fluid in the gasketed plate-and-frame heat exchanger. Results show a strong correlation between the absorption chiller cooling capacity and the absorber performances. However, since this prototype is a real chiller, absorber inlet variables cannot be controlled. Thus, a numerical model is necessary to dissociate the impact of these variables on the absorber performances.A 1D numerical model of the absorber is developed. It is based on mass, species and enthalpy balances, mass and heat transfer equations and equilibrium conditions at the vapour/solution interface. Mass transfer resistances in both liquid and vapour phases are considered while heat and mass transfer coefficients are calculated using empirical correlations.This model is validated experimentally with global data at the inlet and the outlet of the absorber and temperature measures along the absorber coolant fluid channels. A maximal relative error of 15 % is observed. Therefore, a detailed analysis of combined heat and mass transfers along the absorber and the absorption process study is performed thanks to this model.A parametric study is also performed with this model to discuss experimental results and find ways to improve the absorber performances and thus the absorption chiller performances.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 30, 2018 - 11:29:08 AM
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Delphine Triché. Étude numérique et expérimentale des transferts couplés de masse et de chaleur dans l’absorbeur d’une machine à absorption ammoniac-eau.. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAI095⟩. ⟨tel-01696252⟩

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