Caractérisation expérimentale et numérique des scenarii de feu impliquant un conduit de fumée d'appareils de combustion bois

Abstract : The structural evolution of residential buildings due to thermal, environmental regulations and roll out of the Construction Products Regulation generate major challenge for chimney manufacturers, in particular with regard to the safety of residents during a fire. Two fire resistance scenarios are eloquent in European Regulations: the one associated with the development of fire in the room where the chimney is located and the last reported on the development of fire in the chimney itself, by ignition of the deposits. In both cases, the chimney must not be a vector for propagating fire to adjacent rooms and combustible materials. In this context, the present study aims to characterize the main thermal transfers involved in the two scenarios and to better understand the kinetics of formation, decomposition, ignition and combustion of the deposits within the chimney. To do this, an experimental and numerical approach was adopted. The experimental part allows to determine the chemical characteristics (elemental and chemical analyzes) and thermo-physical characteristics (density, conductivity, effusivity and thermal capacity, porosity, calorific value) of 24 residues from real installations or created in laboratory under representative conditions of combustion. These residues are then studied in thermogravimetric analyzers (TGA) and Cone Calorimeters in order to determine the thermal decomposition steps as well as the flammability and combustibility properties, in cases of piloted and auto-ignition. A consequent database of the set of properties has then been generated. A fire-resistant furnace (according to EN 1366-13) allowed the study of the chimney participation in the propagation of fire from one room to another, through the measurement of temperature fields, above the ceiling. The tests allow the acquisition of data essential to the definition of the initial conditions and the limits necessary for the development and the validation of a numerical model developed under Fluent. This model describes heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation. It makes possible to estimate the temperature level on the outer wall of the chimney above the furnace, which is required in the EI performance declaration tests according to EN 1366-13, regardless of the configuration of the chimney (diameter, materials...). The results obtained correspond to the need for Poujoulat, whose challenge is to have an experimental and numerical tool for the development of fire-resistant chimney and a database relating to deposits in order to advise the habitants.
Keywords : Cone calorimeters
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Pierre Cremona. Caractérisation expérimentale et numérique des scenarii de feu impliquant un conduit de fumée d'appareils de combustion bois. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017ESMA0023⟩. ⟨tel-01696249⟩

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