Formation de micro-jets depuis des défauts de surface dans des échantillons métalliques soumis à des chocs laser

Abstract : When a dense material is subjected to a dynamic load (such as projectile impact, explosive detonation or irradiation by a high energy laser beam), a shock wave propagates from the loaded surface. If this shock wave interacts with a free surface with geometrical defects such as grooves, scratches or cavities, it can lead to the ejection of micrometric debris with typical velocities of a few km/s. Understanding this microjetting process is a key issue for many applications, including shielding design, pyrotechnics, high-speed machining and Inertial Confinement Fusion experiments.In this work in collaboration with the CEA-DIF at Bruyères-le-Châtel, this phenomenon is studied under laser-driven shock loading in four materials (Aluminum, Tin, Copper and Lead) with calibrated grooves of two types: isolated triangular profile with controlled aperture half-angles (20°, 30° and 45°) or periodic sinusoidal shape. The influences of the material, of the geometry of the defects, of the shock pressure and of the state of matter (solid or melted under shock or release wave) on the ballistic properties of the ejecta (jet velocity, size distribution and areal mass of the debris constituting the jet) are investigated with three complementary approaches: experimental, theoretical and numerical.The experimental study involves several campaigns performed at the LULI2000 facility of the Laboratoire pour l’Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau) and complementary diagnostic techniques: Transverse Shadowgraphy, Heterodyne Velocimetry, fast in situ X-ray radiography, recovery of the ejecta in a gel followed by microtomography. The results are compared with theoretical predictions (2D shocks and shaped charges hydrodynamics for the triangular grooves, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instabilities for the sinusoidal grooves). Then, numerical simulations are performed with the Radioss code with two complementary approaches: the Lagrangian Finite Elements and the SPH (Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics) formulation, still very scarcely applied to microjetting, more empirical than the first approach but more suitable to the high strains in the jets and allowing access to size distributions of the debris.
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Caroline Roland. Formation de micro-jets depuis des défauts de surface dans des échantillons métalliques soumis à des chocs laser. Autre. ISAE-ENSMA Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Mécanique et d'Aérotechique - Poitiers, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017ESMA0025⟩. ⟨tel-01696243⟩

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