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Caractérisation chez schizosaccharomyces pombe du rôle d’un complexe sérine/thréonine phosphatase de type 4 dans la régulation de la cohésion des chromatides soeurs

Abstract : Sister-chromatid cohesion is ensured by a ring shape protein complex which is in charge of their topological embrace. This complex consists of proteins which are conserved from yeast to human and grouped under the term “cohesin”: Smc1, Smc3 and the phosphoprotein Scc1 which closes the ring (respectively Psm1, Psm3 and Rad21 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe). The regulatory proteins Rad61-Wapl, Pds5 and Scc3 (Wpl1,Pds5 and Psc3 respectively in S. pombe) interact with the ring via Scc1. It has been suggested that DNA capture by the cohesin complex involves the transient opening of the Smc1/Smc3 interface. The dissociation reaction involves the sub-complex Wapl/Pds5/Scc3 which likely causes the opening of the Scc1/Smc3 interface. The mechanisms by which cohesion is created and by which Wapl promotes the cohesin dissociation from chromosomes are still unknown. Among the cohesion mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae the thermosensitive eco1-1 mutation affects the ECO1 gene encoding an acetyl-transferase essential for cell viability and conserved from yeast to human (Eco1 « Establishment of Cohesion » in S.cerevisiae, Eso1 in S. pombe and ESCO1-2 in human) and whose substrate is Smc3. It has been shown that the acetyl-transferase counteracts the dissociation action of Wapl. A genetic screen carried out by several teams in order to find suppressors of the eco1-1 mutation has led to the identification of the genes encoding the Wapl, Pds5, Scc3 and Smc3 proteins as components of the opening mechanism of the cohesin ring. A similar screen was carried out in S. pombe in our lab to find suppressors of the thermosensitive mutation eso1-H17. This screen identified the orthologous genes to those found in the budding yeast: wpl1,pds5, psc3 and psm3 and also the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of the type 4 serine/threonine phosphatase complex (PP4) named pp4c. We have therefore carried out experiments to characterize PP4c and its regulatory subunit Psy2 which has also been found to be involved in sister-chromatid cohesion. We have likewise identified the Rad21 subunit as a PP4 substrate and identified phosphosites as potential targets of PP4. We have then screened and analyzed Rad21 phosphomutants which were able to mimic the suppressor effect of the deletion of pp4c.
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Karen Eguienta. Caractérisation chez schizosaccharomyces pombe du rôle d’un complexe sérine/thréonine phosphatase de type 4 dans la régulation de la cohésion des chromatides soeurs. Génétique. Université de Bordeaux, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015BORD0247⟩. ⟨tel-01694686⟩

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