Variabilité de la capacité de résistance des populations de l’ormeau européen Haliotis tuberculata face à Vibrio harveyi

Abstract : Increasing global temperatures have numerous consequences for marine ecosystems, including the rise of infectious diseases. Certain populations of the European abalone Haliotis tucerculata have suffered from severe and recurrent mortality since 1997 due to infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio harveyi, particularly in areas with higher average summer temperatures. Given the spatial heterogeneity in mortalities, and the observation that the historically most severely impacted populations have recovered in recent years, the question of the emergence of resistance to the disease was addressed. The mortality rate in response to infection by V. harveyi was quantified experimentally in abalone originating from three natural populations, and one population exhibiting resistance to the disease was identified. In a subsequent experiment, the immune response of abalone was compared between infected individuals from a resistant and from a susceptible population. The portal of entry of the bacterium (ie. gills) was identified as playing a role in resistance. Furthermore, successive exposures of abalone to the bacterium demonstrated an immune priming effect, such that following a first exposure, phagocytosis was no longer inhibited by infection with V. harveyi, and that this improved protection against the disease lasted for at least two months. Differences in gene expression was quantified by RNAseq in the hemocytes of resistant and susceptible abalone following exposure to the pathogen. This comparison showed that resistant abalone had more effective recognition of the bacterium by receptors as the TLR or PGRP. The substantial over-expression of a gene involved in the synthesis of mucin, the main component of mucus, (UDP-GalNAC) in the resistant population, supports the interpretation of a strong involvement of gills in the resistance. Finally, an in-silico analysis of the sequences obtained from RNAseq indicate the existence of a DNA methylation system in H. tuberculata and suggested an involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in the adaptation of abalone to its environment.
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Bruno Dubief. Variabilité de la capacité de résistance des populations de l’ormeau européen Haliotis tuberculata face à Vibrio harveyi. Biologie animale. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017BRES0020⟩. ⟨tel-01694393⟩

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