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Outils moléculaires pour l'étude des G-quadruplex au sein du génome

Abstract : Deoxyribonucleic acid has different structures in human beings. The most known is the double helix but a lot of secondary structures exist and particularly G-quadruplex. It consists of guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences. The association of four guanines through hydrogen bonds forms a plan called G-quartet. This set of hydrogen bonds is called Hoogsteen base pairs. The stacking of at least two quartets around a monovalent cation like potassium or sodium establishes the G-quadruplex. These structures have been much studied over the past twenty years. They are involved in numerous biological mechanisms like replication, transcription, translation and also telomere maintenance. G-quadruplex presence can cause an important genetic as well as epigenetic instability. That is why many methods have been developed in order to localize these structures and to understand their role in vivo. To this end, a broad panel of molecular tools has been used. However, it is still difficult to bring an answer to all the questions about the involvement of G-quadruplex at the genomic level with this panel. In this thesis work, we developed new molecular tools able to target selectively G-quadruplex in a complex biological medium from two benchmark ligands, PhenDC3 and PDC, which have very good affinity and selectivity for G-quadruplex.On the one hand, functionalized ligands have been synthetized with a biotin and/or a photoactivatable group in order to trap and pull-down G-quadruplex in various cellular contexts. On the other hand, derivative compounds which are able to be functionalized in cellulo by bioorthogonal reactions have been obtained. Once the compound interacts with its cellular target, a function (fluorophore or biotin) can be added through an orthogonal reaction. The new panel of compounds has been evaluated by biophysical techniques, FRET-melting experiment and FID assay, in order to determine their affinity to G-quadruplex and their selectivity. We proposed a relation between the two biophysical experiments in order to have a good ranking of ligands for G-quadruplex structures.One of the most important objectives of this work was to localize G-quadruplex ligands in human cancer cells. First, a complete study in fixed cells has been performed using two reactions of click chemistry: reaction of copper-catalyzed-alkyne-azide-cycloaddition (CuAAC) and reaction of strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC). Secondly, the study has been pursued in living cells using SPAAC reaction because of the toxicity of copper in cells.These compounds have also been used to extract G-quadruplex from biological systems with cyclooctyne-coated magnetic beads. However, results obtained in this preliminary study are not decisive so it could be interesting to optimize the system before concluding.
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Joël Lefebvre. Outils moléculaires pour l'étude des G-quadruplex au sein du génome. Chimie organique. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS536⟩. ⟨tel-01693928⟩

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