Migration de cellules cancéreuses dans des gels de collagène 3D

Abstract : 3D migration of cancer cells plays an essential role in the dissemination of cells during metastasisin cancer. The behavior of cancer cells migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix and its consequences on themicroenvironment are still currently under investigation. The study of the reorganization of the extracellular matrixfibers and more precisely how the fibers move due to the forces that the cell exerts just start to be investigating.We studied how cancer cells migrate in 3D gels using collagen and fibronectin to mimic the extracellularmatrix. We used confocal microscopy to image the actin cytoskeleton of cells in fluorescence and fibers in reflectionover time. In our studies, we used different collagen concentrations and cell lines with different invasivities. Fromthese 3D movies, we determined cancer cell velocities and persistence as a function of collagen gel concentration aswell as cell invasiveness. The cells velocities increase with invasiveness and decrease with collagen concentration.As for persistence, it decreases with collagen concentration but it do not change with cells invasiveness. We alsocalculated the displacement field of the collagen using a volume correlation program. Using this information, westudied the fibers displacement induced by the cell depending on its migration type, its invasivity and the collagenconcentration. We showed norms of fibers deplacement vectors increase with cell invasiveness and decrease withcollagen concentration. Finally, the displacement fields enabled us to determine the migration steps of mesenchymaland amiboid migrations. We discovered 5 steps in mesenchymal migration : cell rest, creation of extension, adhesionof the cell to the fibers, detachment of the cell rear and dissolution of cell/fibers adhesions. 4 steps have beencharacterized in amiboid migration : cell rest, creation of extension, displacement of the cell by pushing on fibersand rotation of the cell. These steps associated with displacement fields are in agreement with litterature and wehighlighted new steps as the rotation of the cell in amiboid migration.Taken together these results enable us to better understand how the migration of cancer cells takes place in a3D matrix.
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Laure Laforgue. Migration de cellules cancéreuses dans des gels de collagène 3D. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAY093⟩. ⟨tel-01693486⟩

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