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Étude des règles de l'intégration multisensorielle en kinesthésie et de leur évolution liée à l’âge : approches psychophysiques & modélisation bayésienne

Abstract : In our daily live, our central nervous system uses and integrates multiples sensory information to efficiently and accurately perceive self-body and self-limb movements. An important part of the studies on this perception, called kinesthesia, address the question of the multisensory integration principles in this particular perceptive domain. This thesis brings up some answers to this question, enlightening muscle proprioception major contribution to the elaboration of multisensory kinesthetic percepts in young adults and changes occurring with age in the rules governing the integration of vision touch and muscle proprioception in kinesthesia.Revisiting a classical illusory phenomenon implicitly supposed of visual origin, the mirror paradigm, we investigate how the contralateral muscle proprioceptive afferences contribute to the visuo-proprioceptive estimation of self-arm movements. Indeed, the movement illusion of an arm, hidden behind a mirror, created by the reflection of the contralateral arm moving in this mirror seems to emerge from the integration of visual and bilateral proprioceptive feedbacks, as attested by our results. Then, in order to estimate the relative contribution and interaction of vision, touch, and muscle proprioception, we applied specific sensory stimulations on muscle proprioception, touch and/or vision. These stimulations elicit in perfectly still participants self-hand movement illusions. Combining psychophysics and Bayesian approach, we demonstrate that visual and tactile cue integration leads to an optimization of our ability to discriminate self-hand rotation velocity. Nevertheless, kinesthesia remains biased in favor of proprioceptive cues. Finally, knowing that all sensory systems decline across life span, we study the potential evolution of multisensory integration rules in kinesthesia with age. We show a profound reshaping in the weighting of the three sensory entries in older individuals, in favor of touch and vision, probably due to a relative greater impairment of muscle proprioception.
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Submitted on : Friday, January 26, 2018 - 9:56:10 AM
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Marie Chancel. Étude des règles de l'intégration multisensorielle en kinesthésie et de leur évolution liée à l’âge : approches psychophysiques & modélisation bayésienne. Psychologie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAS047⟩. ⟨tel-01693284⟩



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