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Aspect vasculaire de l'interaction tPA / R-NMDA : implications dans le couplage neurovasculaire et dans l'AVC ischémique

Abstract : The tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease initially discovered in the blood for its ability to convert plasminogen into plasmin, an enzyme capable of degrading fibrin chains of blood clots. tPA is the only pharmacological treatment currently used for the acute phase of ischemic stroke, although it has several limitations. Besides its role in fibrinolysis, tPA also modulates various physiological and pathological phenomena within the central nervous system and neurovascular unit, such as memory, excitotoxicity and neurovascular coupling, which has been described recently. Several functions of tPA involve its interaction with N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which leads to an increase in NMDA signaling. Structurally, two forms of tPA have been identified: a single chain form (sc-tPA) and a double chain form (tc-tPA). These two forms, whose proportions vary in the solution administered for thrombolysis during ischemic stroke, share some common functions but may also differ in their therapeutic action. The first objective of our work was to better understand the implication of tPA in neurovascular coupling, which is an essential phenomenon for cerebral functioning that allows active brain regions to benefit from increased blood supply in order to meet local energy demands. In the second part of our work, we investigated the effects of sc-tPA and tc-tPA in a murine model of ischemic thromboembolic stroke.Our results establish a role for vascular tPA in increasing functional hyperemia in neurovascular coupling. We show that vascular tPA interacts with NMDA receptors present at the surface of endothelial cells of arteries and arterioles to increase their dilation during neuronal activity. In the context of cerebral ischemia, our results indicate that when administered during early thrombolysis, sc-tPA and tc-tPA have different and sometimes opposite effects. tc-tPA is less effective than sc-tPA in reducing lesion volume and protecting against functional impairment. In fact, our data show that tc-tPA worsens the integrity of the blood-brain barrier compared to sc-tPA. Overall, these data improve our knowledge of the mechanisms of action of tPA in important physiological and pathological phenomena. Our work underlines the need to take into account differences between sc-tPA and tc-tPA when trying to improve the current treatment for stroke and in the development of future therapeutic strategies involving this molecule.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01693271
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Submitted on : Friday, January 26, 2018 - 9:46:34 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, November 27, 2019 - 3:06:25 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01693271, version 1

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Antoine Anfray. Aspect vasculaire de l'interaction tPA / R-NMDA : implications dans le couplage neurovasculaire et dans l'AVC ischémique. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Normandie Université, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017NORMC416⟩. ⟨tel-01693271⟩

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