Percevoir et agir : la nature sensorimotrice, multisensorielle et prédictive de la perception de la parole

Abstract : Seeing the speaker’s articulatory gestures significantly enhances auditory speech perception. A key issue is whether cross-modal speech interactions only depend on well-known auditory and visual inputs from the speaker’s voice and face or, rather, might also be triggered by other sensory sources less common in speech communication, such as tactile information or vision of the tongue movements. Another goal of the present research was to determine the possible role of the motor system in these multisensory processes. Finally, we used electro-encephalographic, functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques in order to better understand the time course and the functional neuroanatomical organization of these integration mechanisms. Our results extent the concept of “multisensory speech perception” by highlighting a facilitation of auditory processes during audio-haptic speech perception as well as during the observation of our own articulatory movements. They also provide new evidence in favor of a functional role of the motor system in speech perception by demonstrating an increase of motor activity during visuo-lingual speech perception and a more bilateral ventral premotor cortex recruitment during speech perception across aging. Taken together, our results reinforce the idea of a functional coupling and a co-structuring of speech perception and production systems. Our work support the existence of connections between sensory, integrative and motor regions allowing the implementation of multisensory, sensorimotor and predictive processes in the perception and understanding of speech actions.
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Avril Treille. Percevoir et agir : la nature sensorimotrice, multisensorielle et prédictive de la perception de la parole. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAS015⟩. ⟨tel-01693084⟩

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