Ecritures secrètes, écritures magiques : imaginaire de la cryptographie dans la matière de Bretagne des XIIème et XIIIème siècles

Abstract : The research project suggests exploring the particular relationship between " to write " and the magic by taking place as closely as possible to the materiality of the writing: with what and on what do we write? The antique novels and the adventures of king Arthur and Knights of the Round Table, XIIth and XIIIth centuries, works which constitute our corpus, state parchments, "letters", tissues or clothes, of skins of animals or human, plant supports, gravestones, weapons on which we write, sometimes with two or three colors, with various "instruments": feathers of bird (with ink), sharp stylets for example. In a atypical way, substrata short-lived as the flour, the ash, the snow appear; the blood of people (or animals), often, leaves with it signs. Messages written are not still established on the alphabet (for example in the Lay of the Honeysuckle). The support(medium) and the shape of these writings have a particular sense and confer a magic value on the left messages, by the characters, the menor the women, the magicians or the initiated people. The imagination of this kind of cryptography is different from that of the writing: it bases on the support, its materiality and will be the track to favor in our survey(investigation). We shall thus ask ourselves the question of the intentionality of the signs in these messages, according to the choice of the support(medium), whatever it is. The works of our corpus were written for a period which knows the immense development, in vernacular language, the medieval literature; it has a very strong link with the oral character and the folklore. Our survey(investigation) will grant(tune) a particular importance for the popular traditions, for the folklore, for the magic faiths; the tales, the legends, the hagiographic texts as well as the texts with not literary values will be considered to include the part of the imagination in the act to write, by taking into account, where necessary, narratives of the other cultural, extra-European areas and by thinking about the anthropological dimension of the act to write. Also, names (people, places) as well as dates will be considered with attention. The concept of " magic writing " will be defined and encircled: what do we envisage in this magic which can be bound(connected) to supports(media), to signs, to language(tongue) used to draft the message, and to the person who writes? Il will thus involve of giving a sense(direction) to the word "magic" by basing(establishing) itself on the etymology, its relation in the sacred, in the religion, in the witchcraft. We shall lean in this search(research) on what is known supports(media) quoted in the corpus, by basing(establishing) us on the statement of the cases(occurrences) of the terms describing the act to write, and their etymology. This magic has an incidence on the imagination which is not a simple established fact. The works of our corpus keep(guard) tracks of former(old) myths on the appearance of the writing (without her(it) confusing(merging) with the drawing or the paint(painting)), of its powers, his(her,its) relation for the magic and for the sacred. These myths evolve, coexist with the Christian vision but do not die. They will so be stakeholders of our search(research) to question the various imagination of cryptography
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Laurence Doucet Picano. Ecritures secrètes, écritures magiques : imaginaire de la cryptographie dans la matière de Bretagne des XIIème et XIIIème siècles. Littératures. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAL012⟩. ⟨tel-01693076⟩

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