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Métabolisme cérébral au décours d'un traumatisme crânien diffus ; impact de trois thérapeutiques : érythropoïétine, mannitol, lactate de sodium

Abstract : Cerebral metabolism is impaired after a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Post traumatic cerebral edema and hypoxia are mainly responsible of the development of secondary ischemic lesions after TBI leading to metabolic impairment. Tissular hypoxia can result from disorders in macro and microcirculation and/or disturbance in the diffusion of oxygen from the blood capillaries to tissue. The decrease in oxygen consumption observed after brain injury is also related to a post traumatic dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These ischemic or hypoxic phenomena may be responsible for metabolic disorders leading to elevated level of endogenous lactate under anaerobic conditions. However, the elevation of endogenous lactate is mainly the consequence of a metabolic crisis that led to a state of hyperglycolysis without cerebral hypoxia or ischemia after TBI. The aim of our study was to investigate cerebral edema, cerebral oxygenation, mitochondrial and metabolic impairment post TBI in an experimental model of impact acceleration diffuse brain injury in rats. We also analyzed the effects of various neuroprotective agents on cerebral metabolism using a multimodal monitoring. The effects of rhEpo (5000UI/Kg), mannitol (1g/Kg) and of molar sodium lactate (1.5 ml/Kg or 3mOsm/kg) were investigated on brain edema (MRI, electronic microscopy), on brain tissue hypoxia (BOLD MRI, measurement of the tissular pressure of O2, venous O2 saturation of the upper longitudinal sinus), on brain metabolism (Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) and on mitochondria (study of the calcium retention capacity, of the respiratory chain, morphological analysis with electronic microscopy and measurement of intramitochondrial calcium) in male wistar rats. We hypothesized that the injection of various neuroprotective agents would improve posttraumatic cerebral metabolism by restoring a better cerebral hemodynamic status, by improving cerebral edema, tissular oxygenation and/or mitochondrial function. On the early phase of TBI, we demonstrated that rhEpo had a beneficial effect on post traumatic cerebral hypoxia by decreasing post-traumatic cerebral capillaries collapse due to astrocytic end-foot swelling. This effect was associated with an improvement in cellular apoptosis induced by mitochondrial pathways. Mannitol improved brain hypoxia by decreasing peri vascular astrocytic edema. Sodium lactate had benefic effects on cerebral hypoxia by decreasing cerebral edema and improved mitochondrial and metabolic impairments after TBI. These results help understanding physiopathological events after TBI and the various effects of neuroprotective agents that can be used in future clinical research.
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 25, 2018 - 5:07:06 PM
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Anne Millet. Métabolisme cérébral au décours d'un traumatisme crânien diffus ; impact de trois thérapeutiques : érythropoïétine, mannitol, lactate de sodium. Neurosciences [q-bio.NC]. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017GREAS021⟩. ⟨tel-01693068⟩

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