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Caractérisation des communautés microbiennes associées à la colonisation des déchets plastiques en mer

Abstract : The increasing awareness on the impact of plastic pollution within the marine environment has stimulated countless of scientific studies. For the past decade, researchers have quantified plastic waste and assessed its fate at sea. It is estimated that more than 5.25 billion plastic particles float within the world’s oceans today. This PhD work is a result in part of this major environmental concern. It brings with it new knowledge about the marine bacterial communities that develop on plastic debris, also termed as the "plastisphere". The analysis of samples taken from the Tara-Mediterranean expedition allowed us, for the first time, to characterize, and quantify communities specific towards plastic biofilms in comparison to the communities attached to organic matter in surrounding seawater. Bacterial colonization and its evolution on different types of polymers was studied using microcosm experiments with open seawater circulation. The unusual coupling of biological and physicochemical data of plastic surfaces revealed a greater bacterial development on "biodegradable" polymers compared to conventional polymer types (especially hydrocarbonoclastic species). We showed that the composition of the polymer, together with its hydrophobicity and roughness, influences the diversity of bacterial communities during the early colonization steps. Finally, a greater bacterial biofilm activity (e.g. heterotrophic productions) was observed on polymer surfaces compared to seawater. Once again, differences according to plastic types have been observed. This present work highlights the existence of a new ecological niche on plastics that are distinct from the surrounding seawater.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01692701
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 8, 2018 - 1:12:10 PM
Last modification on : Sunday, October 25, 2020 - 2:35:25 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01692701, version 2

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Claire Dussud. Caractérisation des communautés microbiennes associées à la colonisation des déchets plastiques en mer. Océanographie. Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PA066254⟩. ⟨tel-01692701v2⟩

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