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Interaction entre le schéma corporel et les comportements moteurs dans l'anorexie mentale et chez le sujet sain

Abstract : The body schema is an internal and dynamic representation of the body, of the relative positions of body parts, but also of their metrics. It is supposed to be the support for motor behavior to develop appropriately. The main purpose of this doctoral work was to better assess this entanglement between body schema and motor behaviors. Specifically, we sought to evaluate how different motor behaviors are affected by distortions of the body schema, and conversely how the body schema could be modulated by motor behaviors.First, we tested whether the distortion between body schema and body morphology, recently reported in the anorexia nervosa patients, had an impact on their motor behaviors during a locomotion task of door crossing (Study 1). Results show that these patients are actually turning their shoulders for door widths which, given their body morphology, do not require such a contortion. Similar motor behaviors were observed on a patient who lost weight massively and quickly, without suffering from anorexia nervosa (Study 2). Altogether these results confirm the rigidity of body schema towards major body changes, as well as its significant impact on motor behavior in anorexia nervosa.In the second part of this work, we sought to experimentally induce a visual distortion between body schema and segmental positions in healthy subjects, with a mirror paradigm, usually used as therapeutic tool, and to assess the implications for a voluntary motor behavior (bimanual coordination task - Study 3) and an involuntary one (post-contraction response- Study 4). These results show that modulation on motor behaviors is more related to proprioceptive inputs from one arm facing the mirror or better allocation of attention, rather than distortions of the body schema and mirror itself.Finally, our last aim was to test whether the motor behavior, or at least the original motor intention, could in turn modulate the body schema (Study 5). Our results revealed that illusions of movement induced in the mirror paradigm were regulated by whether the participant conducted a motor intention, with the arm subject to the illusion, that was congruent or not with the induced illusory motion.Given the involvement of motor intention in updating the body schema, we suggest that the treatment of body schema disorders (e.g. anorexia nervosa), often based on a visual rehabilitation of the body representation, should be supplemented by a sensorimotor remediation.Keywords: body schema, motor behavior, anorexia nervosa, mirror paradigm, kinesthesia
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Morgane Metral. Interaction entre le schéma corporel et les comportements moteurs dans l'anorexie mentale et chez le sujet sain. Psychologie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAS048⟩. ⟨tel-01692521⟩

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