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Effets de l'entraînement physique périnatal sur la santé métabolique de la descendance : composition corporelle, fonction pancréatique et gestion des substrats énergétiques

Abstract : Prevalence of metabolic diseases is growing up in our modern societies and constitutes a major public health concern. Family history, environment and lifestyle play a role in the susceptibility to several metabolic disorders. Based on epidemiological data, a link has been established between the environment during the first stages of life and diseases occurrence in adulthood leading to the concept of DOHaD. The aim of this work was to study, using a murine model, the effect of daily maternal exercise during gestation or lactation on offspring body composition, pancreatic function and energy substrates handling on a short- and a long-term basis. Maternal training before and during gestation is associated with changes in offspring pancreas structure and function and in energy substrates handling at all ages. Maternal exercise also decreases offspring body weight gain and fat mass gain when exposed to a high-fat/high sucrose diet. Maternal physical exercise during lactation modifies milk composition and offspring pancreatic function. However, it is associated to an increase in offspring body weight in adulthood but seems to protect against the insulin resistance induced by maternal separation. In conclusion, daily physical exercise during gestation and/or lactation modifies offspring organs development and maturation (such as pancreas, adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle) and its energy substrates handling. Maternal training consequences on offspring can be either beneficial or deleterious depending on its age and on its nutritional environment. This work is complementary to studies conducted in the framework of the DOHaD concept and strengthens the idea that the environment during the first stages of life will have short- to long-term impacts on the health of the individual.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01692516
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 25, 2018 - 11:22:09 AM
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Charline Quiclet. Effets de l'entraînement physique périnatal sur la santé métabolique de la descendance : composition corporelle, fonction pancréatique et gestion des substrats énergétiques. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAS041⟩. ⟨tel-01692516⟩

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