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Theses

Medium sized molecules clearance through artificial kidneys

Abstract : Despite a long history of development, the hemodialysis procedure (artificial kidney) still possesses some limitations, such as loss of the initial properties of the membrane due to fouling and poor removal of the middle sized uremic toxins. The present study is part of an European project named BioArt the aim of which was to overcome these limitations. In that objective, one of the partners of BioArt project reported on the development of the novel promising concept of double layer membrane with embedded adsorptive particles. A thorough characterization of the new membrane was then necessary, more precisely the extent to which mixed matrix layer can improve the removal of the uremic toxins from various groups needed to be evaluated, as well as the propensity of the membrane material to become fouled. The studies of the fouling phenomena are conventionally performed at the macro scale (bundle of hollow fibers) without insights of what is happening at the scale of an isolated fiber. Therefore, the primary aim of the present Thesis was to transfer the research of the protein-induced membrane fouling from the macro to the micro scale. A novel transparent microfluidics device with the polymeric membrane inside has been developed and applied for the filtration of model proteins: bovine serum albumin (BSA) and a-lactalbumin. Thanks to the coupling of the microchip with the fluorescent microscopy, different patterns of protein deposition on the membrane surface were observed and related to the variations in the hydrodynamic conditions inside the microchip. It was found that at certain conditions one may observe the difference in protein accumulation in the inlet, the middle, and the outlet of the channel while at other conditions this effect vanishes. Additionally, the unexpected phenomena of a-lactalbumin aggregation was observed over the course of filtration. The location and shape of the aggregates were also dependent on the hydrodynamic conditions and the applied transmembrane pressure. Aiming to address the problem of membrane design optimization for the enhancement of the middle molecules elimination from the bloodstream, a mathematical model, which accounts for the presence of adsorptive particles inside the complex double-layer membrane, has been proposed. The objective of the model was to understand the interplay of three solute removal mechanisms: convection, diffusion, and adsorption. The model allows predicting the influence of various parameters such as molecule diffusivity, membrane thickness, the presence of convection, content of adsorptive particles on the flux intensification across the membrane. The developed model seems to be a useful tool, which may be applied to design optimized membranes for the removal of toxins.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-01692410
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 25, 2018 - 10:16:21 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01692410, version 1

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Dmytro Snisarenko. Medium sized molecules clearance through artificial kidneys. Chemical and Process Engineering. Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016TOU30270⟩. ⟨tel-01692410⟩

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