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Encapsulation de dispositifs symbiotiques implantables : évaluation de la biocompatibilité et des performances

Abstract : The development of implantable medical devices (IMD) provides for more efficient treatment in specific healthcare applications. Such devices are isolated and autonomous within the host organism. Their function does not usually require any input from the host, with the main function of the IMD being typically to stimulate tissues (e.g. muscles, nerves) or to release molecules (e.g. osmotic pump). New generations of IMD that rely on the on continuous duplex interactions with the living organism are being developed. The key aspect of such IMD is the interface with the internal environment of the body. This interface plays a crucial role because it must ensure a perfect symbiosis between the IMD and the host. For example, the interface must both protect the IMD from the complex and powerful inflammatory and immune mechanisms in addition to providing an efficient communication pathway with the host organism. Furthermore, this interface also protects the body from the potentially aggressive elements that can be released by the IMD. The research described in this manuscript is focused to the manufacture and characterisation of a material that can be used to coat IMD so as to optimise both the biocompatibility and efficient functions of the IMD.In this context, the research described here has focused on hydrogels of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) physically polymerized by a freeze/thaw method. Indeed, the semi-crystalline structure of PVA allows modification of the porosity and mechanical properties by varying the parameters of the production process. We therefore performed physico-chemical characterisations of PVA hydrogels (mechanical properties, porosity and diffusivity) before studying in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility. We tuned the PVA membranes to a specific IMD that relied upon duplex communication for its function (i.e. the implantable glucose biofuel cell) and analyzed the performance of PVA to provide an optimised coating. The results report an optimised manufacturing process for PVA that provides for the IMD (i) a solid and easily handled membrane, (ii) a porous membrane optimised for the diffusion of glucose and oxygen to the IMD bioelectrodes, and (iii) a protective membrane against proteins of larger dimension.
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Géraldine Penven. Encapsulation de dispositifs symbiotiques implantables : évaluation de la biocompatibilité et des performances. Biotechnologie. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016GREAS046⟩. ⟨tel-01692383⟩

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